Selection of Rational Structures for Large-sized Liquefied Natural Gas Isothermal Storage Tanks for Arctic Operating Conditions
S.G. Ivantsova, I.A. Leonovich
Dynamics of development of the world natural gas consumption shows that LNG consumption will be constantly growing up. At the same time, the regions of gas production in the Russian Federation are shifting to the north, the share of commercial fields in the Arctic is constantly growing. In general, the Arctic region is potentially the main region of hydrocarbon production in Russia, therefore, the task of selecting rational design of LNG isothermal tanks with a high level of reliability in a harsh climate is especially topical.
Practice of construction of large-sized LNG isothermal tanks in the Russian Federation shows that in the presence of various design solutions of LNG isothermal tanks (single-wall, double-wall with different degree air tightness, membrane), at present, the most capital-intensive design of LNG double-wall isothermal tank of the closed type is selected. At the same time, in the world practice, even in the southern latitudes, less expensive but sufficiently reliable designs of LNG isothermal tanks are actively used. In connection with this, the algorithm is proposed for selecting the rational design of LNG isothermal tanks for specific operating conditions taking into account the applied structural materials and various types of thermal insulation, in this case, the score-factor estimate of heat-insulating materials was made, and the model calculation of the thermal regime of LNG isothermal tanks operation was performed. The tank for liquefied natural gas is selected based on the estimate of the probability of structure failure-free operation, as well as the solution of the problem of two-criteria Pareto optimization.
Key words: liquefied natural gas, isothermal tank, heat insulation, design, safety, probabilistic analysis.
Coal Mines Blast Protection with the Use of Automatic Blast Localization Systems
Yu.V. Gorlov, N.L. Razumnyak
Safety threat in the mines is the presence of explosion hazardous methane and coal dust concentrations. Occurred explosion can be stopped by the only way: by stopping the flame front that is propagating along the workings. When the flame front is extinguished (localized), the explosion without the new energy feed will cease in a natural way, and the blast wave will die out at a limited length of the mine working. Otherwise, the blast wave of the non-localized explosion will lift up coal dust deposits, and the flame front will cause new more violent explosions — up to the detonation and destruction of the entire mine. Consequently, the usage of any devices aimed only at reducing the damaging factors of the explosion and not ensuring its localization is meaningless and not efficient. To ensure explosion protection the Automatic system for explosion suppression (explosion localization) ASVP-LV.1M was developed and implemented in 2005. The system surpasses the world analogues, which is confirmed by the tests in Russia, Ukraine and China. Over the years of ASVP-LV.1M application it has proved to be simple in operation and reliable device for explosion protection. The system localized real explosions in coal mines. For example, the automatic barrier actuated efficiently in the time of explosion of methane and coal dust at Vorkutinskaya Mine in 2013. At present, new modification of ASVP-LV.MF has been developed on the basis of ASVP-LV.1M. It is delivered for work in the scope of the multifunctional safety system of coal mines. Implementation of ASVP-LV.MF allows to meet all the requirements of the regulatory documents related to blast protection equipment. In future it is planned to create the systems with various remote sensors: shock wave, infrared radiation of explosion, mine atmosphere control. It is also planned to create an advanced information system that allows more efficient control over the explosion protection triggering, thereby localize the explosion reducing to the theoretical minimum the impact of its harmful and damaging factors.
Key words: coal mine, explosion protection, explosion protection device, explosion localization, explosion suppression, explosion protection of mine workings, automatic system, anti-accident protection, multifunctional mine safety system.
On the Methodological Recommendations for Classification of Emergency Events at Hazardous Production Facilities of the Oil and Gas Complex
S.G. Radionova, S.A. Zhulina, T.A. Kuznetsova, I.A. Kruchinina, A.I. Grazhdankin, O.V. Kurpatov
Rostechnadzor Order of January 24, 2018 № 29 approved Safety Guide «Methodological Recommendations for the Classification of Technological Events in the Field of Industrial Safety at Hazardous Production Facilities of the Oil and Gas Complex», which contains the recommendations on the four-level classification of emergency events at hazardous production facilities of the oil and gas complex: accidents; incidents; preconditions for incidents; violations in the system of industrial safety management and industrial control, and (or) dangerous abuse of the process parameters.
Criteria for classification of emergency events are harmonized with the American code ANSI / API RP-754 «Process Safety Performance Indicators for the Refining & Petrochemical Industries», and the guide of the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers OGP-456-2011–2017 «Process Safety — Recommended Practice on Key Performance Indicators».
The principles and recommendations for the classification of emergency events described in the guide are used at the investigation and recording of accidents and incidents; assessment of the efficiency of systems of industrial safety management and industrial control; determination of the level of safety at hazardous production facilities of the oil and gas complex; hazard analysis and accident risk assessment; development of the documents of the operating organizations on recording of the accidents, investigation and recording of the incidents, recording and preventing of the violations of industrial safety requirements; development of plans of activities for localization and liquidation of consequences of accidents, industrial safety declarations, safety cases for hazardous production facilities of the oil and gas complex; development of the activities on ensuring remote control at hazardous production facilities of the oil and gas complex.
The guide for the first time presented the threshold quantities for the assessment of emergency releases of hazardous substances at the linear and site hazardous production facilities of the oil and gas complex, as well as comprehensive typical signs of difference in pre-emergency destructions, failures and damages of technical devices.
The results of the static analysis of the causes of the emergence of the entire spectrum of accidents at hazardous production facilities of the oil and gas complex should be appropriately used when assessing and taking preventive measures on prevention of accidents, incidents in the annual analysis of functioning of industrial safety management system and production control, and effective implementation of the remote control.
Key words: oil and gas complex, industrial safety, risk-oriented approach, emergency event, accident, incident, remote control.
Improvement of the Methods of Estimating the Expected Frequency of Accidents at the Gas Pipelines Based on the Results of its Approbation in OOO Gazprom transgaz Yekaterinburg
Yu.A. Bondin, S.V. Bausov, S.V. Ovcharov
Regulatory and methodological documents developed by Rostechnadzor and PAO Gazprom considering the experience of the world best practices for ensuring industrial safety, preventing accidents and work injuries serve as a basis for implementation of the up-to-date and innovative methods for planning diagnostics, maintenance and repair of linear part of the main gas pipelines.
In accordance with the regulatory-methodical documents, the long-term programs for diagnostics, maintenance and repair of the linear part of the main gas pipelines should be based on the quantitative assessment of not only the reliability indicators but also the technogenic risk of sections of the main gas pipelines.
According to the normative and methodological documents the quantitative risk analysis includes the assessment of the expected frequency of accidents, which consists in identifying for each source of hazard in the scope of hazardous production facility the frequency of potential accidents occurrence.
The methods of expert evaluation of the expected frequency of accidents at the gas pipeline section is aimed at predicting the accident rate (identifying the expected specific frequency of accidents) at the arbitrary section of the gas pipeline of the finite length, which is characterized by the specific set of factors and operating conditions.
General provisions formulated by the specialists of OOO Gazprom transgaz Yekaterinburg are presented on the basis of the approbation of the methodology of PAO Gazprom for assessment of accidents frequency at the sections of gas pipeline. When identifying the expected specific frequency of accidents, the split of the gas pipeline per sections is proposed to be made on each of the factors of influence separately considering its importance and the nature of change along the pipeline route.
As a required condition for obtaining adequate estimates of the expected specific frequency of accidents and the risk for the analyzed pipeline, the condition is formulated concerning the permanency of the expected frequency of accidents calculated for the entire pipeline route on each separate factor of influence regardless the way of splitting the route into sections.
The presented provisions can be applied to any hazardous production facilities having large linear length.
Key words: industrial safety, hazardous production facility, gas pipeline, maintenance and repair, influence factor, expected frequency of accidents, risk analysis.
Problems of Implementation and Functioning of Industrial Safety Management Systems in the Organizations Operating Hazardous Production Facilities
S.N. Buinovsky, Yu.F. Karabanov, V.A. Tkachenko, V.K. Shalaev
The existing deficit of the normative requirements regulating all the stages of the life cycle of industrial safety management systems, including regulation of performance evaluation and monitoring of their activity or conformity assessment, reduces the effect of their existence.
At present, the adequate implementation and functioning of industrial safety management systems in the organizations operating hazardous production facilities are far from being complete. They require solution of the sufficiently wide range of interrelated problems, such as the implementation of management feedback, the identification of industrial safety level, the assessment of the efficiency and effectiveness of industrial safety management systems, the conformity assessment of industrial safety management systems with other specified requirements, and other problems, which solution could be reflected in the relevant regulatory framework and in the documents of the non-regulatory nature.
Identification of the level of industrial safety of hazardous production facilities is of key importance for functioning of industrial safety management systems, since the possibility of this determination allows to ensure realistic feedback in the system, without which the management itself is impossible. Solving the problems of the adequate functioning of industrial safety management systems, assessment of their effectiveness, assessment of the compliance with the requirements will allow to increase the effectiveness of this element of industrial safety.
Key words: industrial safety, management system, hazardous production facility, feedback in management.
Express-Methods for Calculation of the Dispersion of Heavy Gas Emissions in the Atmosphere
Yu.V. Gamera, Yu.Yu. Petrova
Identification of the scope of possible pollution of the atmosphere by harmful substances emissions is an essential part of the procedure for quantitative risk assessment of accidents at hazardous production facilities. First of all, it is related to the release of combustible and toxic gases which density is greater than the air density, since the specific feature of heavy gases is the dispersion in the narrow layer near the earth surface, in which both the sources of ignition and potential recipients are located. The article presents the review of existing approaches to calculating the dispersion of heavy gas emissions in the atmosphere. Verified, experimental-based algorithm of data for identifying zones of hazardous concentrations of harmful heavy gases with instantaneous and prolonged emissions is proposed. Algebraic relations are presented for solving the problems: direct (calculation of the location of isolines of the given concentration) and inverse (identification of the concentration in the given point). When solving the reverse problem, the possibility of the finite duration of the release is taken considered. Relative simplicity of the algebraic computational algorithm makes it possible to use the proposed express-methods for solving the wide range of problems, primarily those associated with the preliminary risk assessment at dispersion in the atmosphere of emergency emissions from various hazardous production facilities with handling of heavy gases or liquids, which pairs are related to heavy gases.
Key words: atmosphere, emission, cloud drift, dispersion, heavy gas, hazardous production facility, risk assessment.
Application of Technical Diagnostics for Calculation of the Probability of Technical Devices Fracture and Accident Risk Assessment
N.A. Makhutov, V.I. Ivanov, V.V. Musatov
One of the main ways of ensuring safety of production facilities is the application of the information technologies based on the methods and means of technical (technogenic) diagnostics. This concept includes the theory, methods and means of identifying technical state of technical devices. For assessment of their safety the set of measures is required: carry out non-destructive testing, perform strength calculations (current, predictive, static, monotonous and cyclic loading, etc.), study of the state of the object material, diagnostics of corrosion state of the degrading object, etc. Methods for calculating the initial and residual resources for successive stages of degradation of the material of the technical device, formation and development of local fracture using the criteria of mechanics of fracture, basic characteristics of the mechanical properties of materials and regularities of their changes during operation play the most important role.
The article shows the possibilities of calculating the probability of technical devices fracture using the results of non-destructive testing and technical diagnostics. It is recommended to use values of fracture probabilities at calculating the risk of technical device failure. Also, it is required to use additional information about the defects that can be obtained from the calibration characteristics (considering measurement errors), the defect detection diagram, and, also the reliability diagram. It is noted that the wide application of accident risk assessment methods using accident probability calculations is complicated by the lack of methods for calculating the probability of fracture of the particular technical device depending on the parameters of the defect. In addition, there are no methods for non-destructive testing, in which the requirements are recorded concerning the estimation of errors in measuring parameters of defects and reliability of non-destructive testing.
Key words: industrial safety, technical diagnostics, accident risk, fracture mechanics, non-destructive testing.
Improving Safety of Work at the Development of Flat Thin Beds
V.I. Golik, V.G. Lukyanov, S.A. Maslennikov, D.V. Melkov
Topicality of the article is explained by the fact that the majority of the nonferrous metal ores is developed in the conditions where it is impossible to mechanize labor at the proper level. Such ore bodies are practicing low-productivity and dangerous technology with the presence of a person in the open worked-out space. The practice proved that breaking of ore can be executed by other options with excluding presence of the working staff in the worked-out space, but they are considered ineffective due to mining of special workings for ore breaking. The topicality of the research increases with the growth of the market conditions of non-ferrous, rare and noble metals on the market.
The goal of the study is to prove that the ore mining options are not inferior to the conventional option ensuring radical increase of mining operations safety.
The method of study is the full-scale modeling of the mining parameters in the experimental blocks of the metal deposit, systematization, analysis and graphical interpretation of the obtained results.
The methods are given related to organization of the experiment and the indicators of its implementation in the full-scale conditions. Quantitative results are provided concerning the comparison of the option with ore breakage from the working excavation with the options of ore breaking from the drilling workings. Processing and graphical interpretation of the simulation results with ranking of options are made. It is proved that when mining ore the labor intensity of mining of the drilling workings is compensated by the improvement of ore delivery conditions and the radical increase of safety of the mining operations.
The options of ore extraction from the flat thin ore bodies, despite the labor intensity of mining of the special workings for ore breaking do not worsen the technical and economic indices of the development radically improving safety of work by rational use of the explosion force.
Key words: ore, underground mining, drilling, labor productivity of the coal cutter, shooting, bench, coal heading, rising.
Soundproof Сharacteristics of the Сabins of Maneuverable Aircrafts of the State Aviation
S.P. Dragan, V.N. Zinkin, S.K. Soldatov, V.V. Kharitonov, M.V. Somov, A.A. Mishchenko
The objective of the article is to study sound insulation of the cabins of maneuverable aircrafts in terms of ensuring acoustic safety for the professional activities of the flight team. It is shown that the main source of noise in the aircraft cabin during the flight are power plants. However, acoustic vibrations have not only aerodynamic origin, but also are caused by the appearance of structural noise produced by the operation of engines rigidly connected to the glider body. When examining the sound insulation of the aircraft cabin on the equivalent sound level, it is established that the value of this indicator ranges from 25 to 31 dBA, while in the low-frequency, infrasonic and high-frequency ranges the sound insulation reached the maximum values (32–45 dB), and in the mid-range did not exceed 30 dB. In the aircraft cabin the acoustic indicators reach maximum values (112–113 dBA) during take-off, while in the course of the horizontal flight at the specific altitude the noise in the aircraft cabin reaches 100 dBA, and infrasound —101 dB Lin. At the cockpit control station of the flight crew the equivalent sound level is 99 dBA, which is significantly higher than the maximum permissible levels (80 dBA): working conditions correspond to the harmful class of labor — 3.2. Equivalent total sound pressure level did not exceed the maximum permissible values for infrasound, which corresponds to the permissible class 2 on infrasound. It is shown that the flight crew has risks of development of noise pathology, primarily neurosensory hearing loss. The presence of the flying helmet with the flying personnel does not require using additional personal protective equipment against noise, since such a helmet in the frequency band from 125 to 8 thousand Hz ensures sound attenuation of not less than by 15–35 dB. It is shown that the sound insulation of the aircraft cabins of the maneuverable aviation during the flight with regard to infrasound and low frequencies is deteriorating, and with regard to medium and high frequency region it remains at the same level. The results of the studies justified that the cabins of the aircrafts of maneuverable aviation due to design features are well protected from external acoustic vibrations.
Key words: maneuverable aviation, acoustic environment, aircraft noise, sources of aviation noise, soundproofing of the cabin, aviation acoustics, acoustic safety.
Criteria Effecting the Time and Probability of Ensuring Employees Safety by Means of Rescue
D.A. Besperstov, A.I. Fomin, V.V. Sobolev, A.M. Ermolayev, V.G. Igishev
Prospects of using rescue equipment for people in case of fires are considered. The need and effictiency of using rescue equipment from the height in case of fires at the coal enterprises under modern conditions are substantiated. Rescue equipment is considered as compensatory measure on ensuring safety of people when it is impossible to evacuate them in the standard mode. The need in achieving equal labor relations of the employees of industrial enterprises is substantiated: both those involved in the technological process and those who work in the associated services (human resources, accounting, etc.). The methods of using rescue equipment for people in case of fires is presented, its effect is considered related to the magnitude of individual fire risk. According to the presented methods, it is possible to determine the required number of self-rescue devices for people based on the technical characteristics of these devices and the time of hazardous fire factors occurence. The procedure is given concerning the calculation of the probability of people rescue when using the appropriate technical devices, and the effect of this probability on the estimated value of individual fire risk. The methods allowed to substantiate increase in safety level for people who have no opportunity to leave the building in the standard mode in the event of fire. The proposed methods made it possible to reveal the potential of using rescue equipment from the height. For manufacturers it became possible to develop rescue devices suitable for specific types of buildings (selecting the appropriate technical characteristics of the means: preparation time, activation time and descent speed). The results of the study allow to visually show the additional parameters that positively effect the fire-extinguishing condition of the objects, as well as the estimated value of the individual fire risk of people loss of life that will be topically for retraining and advanced training of the enterprise employees responsible for labor protection and fire safety.
Key words: employees safety, rescue equipment, self-rescue criteria, risks of personnel loss of life, hazardous factors, evacuation, probability of rescue, device technical characteristics, physical state, psychological state, efficiency evaluation, method and means of ensuring safety.