The current problem of ensuring explosion and fire safety of the accumulator batteries is considered in the article. At many facilities, including for industrial purpose, they are used as uninterruptible emergency power supply for fire protection systems, as well as the networks supplying power consumers of the first category on the reliability of power supply (and the special group included in it).
Analytical summary is presented that shows the advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used types of batteries in Russia from the point of view of their explosion and fire safety. According to the statistics, the lead-acid accumulator batteries are widely used most of all.
The requirements applied for explosion and fire safety of accumulator installations, as well as the methods for its assessment and ensuring, are reviewed in detail. Inconsistency of the requirements of the regulatory documents at various levels (standards, set of rules, departmental norms and rules) is noted, which makes it difficult to control the production of the accumulator batteries, their proper selection for use at the facilities and further operation.
Analytical methods for explosion and fire safety assessment in emergency short circuit conditions were studied when analyzing the explosion hazard parameters of hydrogen mixture with air in order to categorize the rooms with the installed batteries. The approaches are analyzed concerning the calculation of the ventilation systems for ensuring compliance of these premises with explosion and fire safety norms.
Practical significance of the work is in studying the results of many years of the accumulator batteries experimental studies for compliance with the requirements of GOST 12.2.007.12—88. Specific evidence-based recommendations were developed on increasing the explosion and fire safety of batteries in real operating conditions.
The proposal was made on creating the single normative document regulating fire safety requirements of battery installations and their test methods. This initiative is based on the vast experience of the authors in this area and the widespread practice of using the current regulatory framework.