To analyze the conditions of operational loading and management of safe operation service life for high-risk industrial objects, it is required to perform detailed study of all the stages of their life cycle, including stages of design, fabrication, operation and safe decommissioning based on data related to design and residual operation life. The number of such activities is implemented like modeling of the studied object, development of its design and manufacturing techniques, selection acceptable for the specified operation conditions of structural materials with the corresponding set of mechanical properties characteristics — yield stress, strength and plasticity, elasticity module.
The main objective of transition from conventional methods of calculations at a design stage to perspective one lies in the fact that at solving the problem of ensuring safe operation conditions of industrial equipment, it is required to solve initially the problems of ensuring the set level of risks and the level of its security from possible accidents and disasters. It is necessary to demand the application of such norms of strength and service life calculations, which would provide for acceptable level of these initially set parameters of security and risk.
The considered approaches to the determination of the life and its management and the safe operation life of industrial objects illustrate the procedures of the consecutive analysis of the conditions for occurrence of failures, damages, accidents and disasters for design, beyond design basis and hypothetical situations. At the same time for industrial facilities of various categories upon transition in estimates of the service life from regular to hypothetical catastrophic situations, the role of deformation criteria compared with power ones increases. In particular at the high levels of loading the material passes to, as a rule, into the inelastic area of deformation, and nonlinear regularities of this process become prevailing.
For further development of the methods and systems of definition, standardizing and extension of the service life and the terms of safe operation, the crucial significance is in accepting the basis of state policy in the field of ensuring industrial safety, which assume conducting new systematic scientific researches and implementation of the relevant practical developments.