In the technological processes of oil and gas wells construction, a variety of general-purpose inorganic chemical reagents are used. The ingress of these reagents into the body of drilling enterprises employees together with the inhaled air, ingested food (through the pores and mucous membrane) is currently not sufficiently studied. The work investigated the effect of the Brucite drilling reagent on the lung tissue of rats of the non-linear albino line. With the inhalation of the Brucite drilling reagent to rats, the dystrophic processes were observed in their lungs, which were accompanied by the development of chronic inflammation and an acute macrophage reaction. There was a significant increase in the size of perivascular infiltrates compared to the control (13370 ± 248.6) μm2) with 14-day administration of particles of the Brucite drilling reagent — (14867.21 ± 369.29) μm2, with 30-day administration — 15853, 87 ± 126.57. Also, morphometric analysis showed a significant decrease in the area of alveolar space, and the area of medium-caliber bronchus. In the lungs, the formation of many airless areas was noted, alternating with emphysematous — altered, the severity of which increased with the duration of exposure to the drilling reagent. The consequence of work with Brucite drilling reagent of the drilling enterprises employees can be professional, acute, and chronic diseases of the lungs, as well as specific sensitization of the body caused by the exposure to dust particles. In the future, it is planned to conduct a statistical analysis of the incidence rates with temporary disability, occupational diseases, and occupational poisoning among the employees in contact with the Brucite drilling reagent, and the development of efficient measures to reduce the harmful effects of the Brucite drilling reagent on the certain categories of specialists at the drilling enterprises.
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