On the territory of Donbass, more than 450 mine dumps with a volume of up to 300 million m3 and an area of 1.3 thousand hectares have a negative impact on the land, the area of which reaches 7 thousand hectares. In connection with this, an urgent task arises to involve processing waste in the production process for obtaining the end products.
It is known that the coal enrichment tailings contain critical non-ferrous and rare-earth metals. However, the processing of coal enrichment tailings using traditional physical and chemical technologies does not solve the problem of mine surface reclamation due to new tailings formation. The main method of reclamation of the mine surface is the inclusion of dump materials in the natural circulation of the metal extraction. A promising direction of the development is the processing of coal enrichment tailings in the disintegrators with leaching. This will help to prevent an ecological catastrophe in the region and obtain critical products.
The rational application of the theory of mechanical activation of processes, the use of the results of field observations and analysis methods at the satisfactory convergence of the theoretical and practical data, will allow to minimize the negative impact of coal processing tailings on the environment.
Based on the results of comprehensive studies, the parameters of the waste-free disposal of coal tailings as the main cause of degradation of the environmental ecosystems were substantiated. The ecological and economic effect is ensured by the combination of sorting and mechanical activation of tailings of the coal preparation in the disintegrators.
The recommended technology may become in demand in the development of deposits of the metal-containing technologically discovered minerals. It is used for industrial mining of uranium, copper, and gold at 12 enterprises in Russia. The proposed approach has good prospects as the only one that ensures cost-effective environmental and resource-saving production.
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