The problem of technological installations operational safety in the gas processing industry, which is currently subject to high requirements, is studied in the article. This is due to the circulation of harmful and hazardous substances at the installations, as well as the possibility of gas leakage when interacting with which air can create an explosive mixture.
Statistical data is presented concerning the incidents in the oil and gas due to violations of safety rules and deviations from normal operating mode at gas dehydration units. The number of fires, emissions of hazardous substances and explosions is also noted.
The object of research is presented — gas adsorption dehydration unit. Process flow diagram of adsorption gas dehydration with a brief description of the process is attached. Physical and chemical production factors of hazards arising during operation of the adsorption gas dehydration unit, the toxicity of substances and their effect on the human body are considered.
During the research, the main focus is on the quality of the adsorbent used for gas dehydration. Due to the poor quality of the adsorbent (partial crushing and coking of the adsorbent layer), an increase in the pressure drop in the adsorber is possible, which may result in an additional load on the equipment parts, which can lead to destruction.
It should also be noted that the quality of the adsorbent affects the amount of dust emitted. With repeated use, the adsorbent particles are reduced in size and carried away with the gas flow. Industrial dust is a particle of solid substances suspended in the air for a long time. In case of prolonged contact with industrial dust, there is a risk of chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, lungs.
In the final part of the study, a new adsorbent NaLSX is proposed for use, which has improved characteristics than adsorbents used in industry. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of adsorbents affecting the operational safety and productivity of the gas adsorption dehydration unit is presented.
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