Improving Occupational Safety when Working in an Uncomfortable Pose with Small-scale Mechanization Tools


Annotation:

Small-scale mechanization tools used in construction (perforators, screwdrivers, drills, angle grinders, etc.), produced by various companies, in most cases require operators to work in an uncomfortable pose: on their knees, on their hunkers, with their arms raised high, which leads to rapid fatigue, and in some cases — to diseases. However, in the technical descriptions of these machines there is no information about working poses in which working with these machines becomes unproductive and dangerous. In this case, normative hygienic documents regulating the allowable severity of labor consider the work in an uncomfortable pose without specific conditions for its implementation, which does not allow quantifying it.

To solve this problem, production and experimental studies of the performance of work with small-scale mechanization in various poses were carried out, based on which the corresponding regularities of changes in labor productivity and changes in the functional shifts of the operator body in the process of work and rest were obtained. It was established that the influence of the working posture can be quantified by comparing as a result of the recovery time of functional shifts caused by work in various poses. In addition, the indicators were proposed such as «Actual productivity coefficient», which considers the regularity of productivity changes during the work shift, and «Effective utilization coefficient», which takes into account the efficiency of technical and energy resources usage. The obtained results allow to identify the most effective ways for increasing productivity and work safety. For example, for means of small-scale mechanization with insignificant mass it is advisable to ensure work in a convenient pose by improving their design (mass increase).

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DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2020-2-45-50
Year: 2020
Issue num: February
Keywords : safety labor security mode perforator machine
Authors:
  • Gumenjuk V.I.
    Gumenjuk V.I.
    Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Prof. SPbPU of Peter the Great, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
  • Dobroborskiy B.S.
    Dobroborskiy B.S.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Assoc. Prof., Research Associate, 5542797@rambler.ru ООО «SPbGASU-Dorservis», Saint-Petersburg, Russia
  • Medres E.E.
    Medres E.E.
    Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Assoc. Prof. Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Saint-Petersburg, Russia