Parametric Justification for Equipping the Object with Fire Extinguishers


Annotation:

The article describes the algorithm and the method of parametric assessment of fire extinguishers predicted efficiency. It is shown that the current requirements for the parameters of fire extinguishers do not ensure efficient protection of the operator from the effects of harmful fire factors. The test results and the parameters of fire extinguishers declared by the manufacturers are presented.

Based on the experiments, the requirement for the range of supply of the extinguishing agent as the most important factor in the successful use of a fire extinguisher to extinguish a fire is substantiated. The concept is introduced concerning the effective jet length at the exit of the extinguisher nozzle. The requirements for the main parameters of a fire extinguisher are given, compliance with which corresponds to the conditions for safe fire - fighting. Substantiation is provided related to the need of fire extinguisher stock or the presence of an additional fire extinguisher. The results are based on the analysis of a database of fire extinguishers of various types and volumes. Fire experiments were carried out on the standardized fire sources. Extinguishing was performed by the operators in protective clothing and without protective equipment, but from the distance of fire extinguisher safe usage. The algorithm is proposed related to fire extinguisher selection for the object equipping taking into account physical properties of the environment and fire- fighting conditions.

Based on the calculation analysis, a safe distance from the operator without protective equipment to the outer edge of the flame of the standardized fire sources was determined. The obtained calculation results are confirmed by the experiments on extinguishing standardized fire sources using solid fuel (firewood) and liquids (gasoline). The supply range of the extinguishing agent should be normalized, considering the rank of the standardized fire source, and not the size of the extinguisher.

From the comparative calculation and experimental analysis, it follows, that for extinguishing the standardized fire source with a reliability of no worse than 0,99, it is advisable to use one extinguisher with a double stock of extinguishing agent or two extinguishers.

The algorithm and the method of equipping an object are proposed considering the actual parameters of fire-extinguisher, safety conditions for the operator and the extinguishing reliability. The conducted analysis showed that in order to increase the fire safety of the facilities, it is required to make corrections in the current normative-technical documentation.

References:
  1. Murzinov V.L., Parshin M.V. Modeling of the room temperature in the presence of an open flame under the conditions of free convection. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2014. Vol. 23. № 12. pp. 28–33. (In Russ.).
  2. Koshmarov Yu.A., Bashkirtsev M.P. Thermodynamics and heat transfer in the fire-fighting: textbook. Moscow: VIPTSh MVD SSSR, 1987. 440 p. (In Russ.).
  3. Isaeva L.K., Nikitina G.S., Sulimenko V.A. Fire and environmental safety of residential buildings. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2016. Vol. 25. № 6. pp. 19–26. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18322/PVB.2016.25.06.19-26
  4. Gorev V.A., Salymova E.Yu. Influence of gas exchange conditions and initial temperature on the formation of dangerous fire factors at the initial stage of its development. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2013. Vol. 22. № 1. pp. 63–68. (In Russ.).
  5. Kozlachkov V.I., Lobaev I.A., Yagodka E.A., Bogatov A.A., Protsenko A.Yu. Rapid assessment of safe distances to the fire load taking into account the estimated time of people evacuation. Tekhnologii tekhnosfernoy bezopasnosti = Technology of Technosphere Safety. 2015. № 4 (62). pp. 74–83. (In Russ.).
  6. Drayzdeyl D. Introduction to the dynamics of fires. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1990. 424 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Uilmot T., Peysh T. Horrifying Fire Mortality Rate in the Eastern Europe. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2003. Vol. 12. № 1. pp. 17–18. (In Russ.).
  8. Kurbatskiy O.M., Smelkov G.I., Isavnin N.V. Methodology for evaluating the extinguishing ability for fire extinguishers. Moscow: VNIIPO, 1976. 19 p. (In Russ.).
  9. Bulgakov Yu.F., Varshavskiy S.Yu. Ensuring the efficiency of extinguishing freely burning fires in the coal mines. Gornaya promyshlennost = Mining Industry. 2009. № 5 (87). pp. 51–55. (In Russ.).
  10. Bulgakov Yu.F. Classification, comprehensive assessment and ways to improve the efficiency of mine fire extinguishers. Gornospasatelnoe delo: sb. nauch. tr. (Mine rescue work: collection of research papers). Donetsk: NIIGD, 1998. pp. 40–46. (In Russ.).
  11. Bulgakov Yu.F. Extinguishing of fires in the coal mines: monograph. Donetsk: NIIGD, 2001. 280 p. (In Russ.).
  12. Kozhevin D.F. Methodology for the comprehensive assessment of fire extinguishers efficiency (in relation to fire hazardous production facilities of oil depots): thesis... Candidate of Technical Sciences. Saint-Petersburg, 2011. 167 p. (In Russ.).
  13. Sytdykov M.R., Kozhevin D.F., Polyakov A.S. Evaluation of the perfection of the pneumatic tract of powder-type extinguishers based on the dimensional analysis method. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2012. Vol. 21. № 4. pp. 51–54. (In Russ.).
  14. Matyushin A.B., Matyushin Yu.A. The methodology for calculating the number of portable fire extinguishers required for protection of the building (structure) premises from fire. Pozharnaya bezopasnost = Fire Safety. 2003. № 1. pp. 52–60. (In Russ.).
  15. Tagiev R.M. A ray of light in the realm of darkness. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2012. Vol. 21. № 4. pp. 83–84. (In Russ.).
  16. NPB 88—2001. Fire extinguishing and alarm installations. Design norms and rules. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200016069 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  17. Volkov R.S., Kuznetsov G.V., Strizhak P.A. Experimental study of the specifics of the movement of droplets of sprayed extinguishing liquid at the entrance to the flame zone. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2013. Vol. 22. № 12. pp. 16–22. (In Russ.).
  18. Volkov R.S., Kuznetsov G.V., Strizhak P.A. On some physical regularities of evaporation of the atomized water when moving through high-temperature combustion products. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. 2013. Vol. 323. № 2. pp. 201–207. (In Russ.).
  19. Volkov R.S., Kuznetsov G.V., Strizhak P.A. Experimental study of the integral characteristics of the evaporation of fresh and salt water when moving through a flame. Pozhary i chrezvychaynye situatsii: predotvrashchenie, likvidatsiya = Fire and emergencies: prevention, elimination. 2014. № 2. 18–23. (In Russ.).
  20. On fire prevention regime (as amended on September 20, 2019): Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of April 25, 2012 № 390. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902344800 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  21. Vybornov Yu.E. Determining the needs of objects in fire extinguishers. Ognetushashchie poroshkovye sredstva: sb. nauch. tr. (Fire extinguishing powder products: Collection of the scientific papers). Moscow: VNIIPO, 1985. pp. 97–103. (In Russ.).
  22. Krasnov E.V., Vaysman M.N., Smirnov A.S., Smirnov S.A. Regulatory analysis of powder сomposition and fire extinguishers in Russia and abroad. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2013. Vol. 22. № 1. pp. 7–14. (In Russ.).
  23. Izerushev D.E., Khabirov V.G. Problems of fire extinguishing in tall buildings and high-rise buildings. Molodezhnyy vestnik Ufimskogo gosudarstvennogo aviatsionnogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta = Youth Bulletin of the Ufa State Aviation Technical University. 2019. № 1 (20). pp. 75– 80. (In Russ.).
  24. Gordienko D.M., Pavlov E.V., Osipov Yu.N., Ershov V.I., Panfilova E.V Technical requirements for unmanned aviation systems designed to extinguishing fires in high-rise buildings. Pozharnaya bezopasnost = Fire Safety. 2019. № 2. pp. 54–61. (In Russ.).
  25. Puzach S.V., Puzach V.G., Doan V.M. To the determination of combustion products toxicity index of inflammable substances and materials indoors. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2011. Vol. 20. № 4. pp. 4–13. (In Russ.).
  26. Puzach S.V., Suleykin E.V. New theoretical and experimental approach to calculating the spread of toxic gases in case of fire in the room. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2016. Vol. 25. № 2. pp. 13–20. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18322/PVB.2016.25.02.13-20
  27. Puzach S.V., Nguen D.T. Critical times of carbon monoxide effect on a person in case of fire in the room. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2016. Vol. 25. № 11. pp. 27–34. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18322/PVB.2016.25.11.27-34
  28. GOST R 12.3.047—2012. Occupational safety standards system. Fire safety of technological processes. General requirements. Control methods. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200103505 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  29. Aseeva R.M., Zaikov G.E. Combustion of polymer materials. Moscow: Nauka, 1981. 280 p. (In Russ.).
  30. GOST R 51057—2001. Fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers. General technical requirements. Test methods. Available at:  http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200027410 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  31. GOST R 51017—2009. Fire-fighting equipment. Mobile fire extinguishers. General technical requirements. Test methods. Available at:  http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200071946 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  32. Poltavets V.A. Errors of flight personnel in accident statistics of civil aircrafts and measures to prevent their recurrence. 6-ya Vseros. nauch. konf. «Chelovecheskiy faktor v aviatsii i kosmonavtike: potentsial i resursy» (Sixth All-Russian Scientific Conference «Human Factor in Aviation and Cosmonautics: Potential and Resources»). Available at: http://www.crown-airforce.narod.ru/aviaprom/Poltavets/errors_norepeat.html (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  33. Dillon B., Singkh Ch. Engineering methods for ensuring systems reliability. Moscow: Mir, 1984. 318 p. (In Russ.).
  34. GOST R 27.403—2009. Reliability in technology (SSNT). Test plans for monitoring the likelihood of failure-free operation. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200078695 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  35. Abduragimov I.M. On the mechanisms of fire extinguishing action of fire fighting means. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost = Fire and Explosion Safety. 2012. Vol. 21. № 4. pp. 60–82. (In Russ.).
  36. Fire load. Reference-book. SITIS-SPN-1. Revision 3. Available at: https://fireman.club/literature/pozharnaya-nagruzka-spravochnik-redaktsiya-3/ (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  37. GOST R EN 1127-1—2009. Explosive atmospheres. Explosion protection and prevention. Part 1. Fundamental concept and methodology.  Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200075486 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  38. GOST R EN 13463-1—2009 (EN 13463-1—2001). Non-electric equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. Part 1. General requirements. Available at: https://sibcontrols.com/uploaded/pdf/gost_r_en_13463-1-2009.pdf (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  39. SP 9.13130.2009. Fire- fighting equipment. Fire extinguishers. Operating requirements. Available at:  http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200071152 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
  40. GOST 27331–87. Fire — fighting equipment. Fire classification. Available at:  http://docs.cntd.ru/document/gost-27331-87 (accessed: January 20, 2020). (In Russ.).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2020-5-17-28
Year: 2020
Issue num: May
Keywords : fire extinguisher fire extinguishing fire-fighting safety efficient supply range fire extinguishing agent
Authors: