In recent times, at the quarries one of the main problems is to ensure normal sanitary and hygienic and safe working conditions. This problem is also worsened by the increase in the depth of open pit mining. The regulatory framework for ensuring these conditions is generally established. However, there are still issues that require reasonable decisions. So, the problems of methodical and regulatory support for ensuring the design of quarry ventilation practically remain unaddressed.
Review of the literature sources and regulatory documents, which reflect the design of quarries ventilation, as well as its main stages is presented in the article. Based on the generalization and experience of designing ventilation of many quarries, the stages of such design are emphasized.
On the concrete example it is shown what wrong conclusions are drawn due to lack of scientifically based methodological recommendations for calculating the pollution of quarries at their natural ventilation. For this purpose, using the methods of MGI NITU «MISiS» the calculation was carried out concerning the natural ventilation of one of the mountaintop quarries of the Russian Far North.
As shown by the calculations, the concentration of dust in the worked-out area as a result of natural ventilation with wind directions from the mountain will be within the normal range at a speed of 2.5–3 m/s. At a lower speed, the dust concentration may exceed the maximum permissible, therefore, during these periods it is required to take measures aimed at its reduction. Moreover, it is required in case of calm, when there is a high probability of temperature inversions, especially in the winter period with anticyclones. Thus, the need was confirmed in calculating the concentrations of harmful substances in mountaintop quarries at their natural ventilation, at least from the side of the mountain and in case of calm.
The justified and given in the article proposals are related to the development of relevant intersectoral guidelines for designing ventilation in quarries.
- Safety rules at conducting mining operations and processing of solid minerals: Federal rules and regulations in the field of industrial safety. Ser. 03. Iss. 78. Moscow: ZAO NTTs PB, 2019. 302 p. (In Russ.).
- SanPiN 220.127.116.1159—16. Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for physical factors at the workplaces. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/420362948 (accessed: March 1, 2019). (In Russ.).
- Safety rules at the development of open pit coal deposits: the order of Rostechnadzor of November 20, 2017 № 488. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/542612569 (accessed: March 1, 2019). (In Russ.).
- Hygienic norms 18.104.22.16832—18. Maximum allowable concentrations (MPC) of harmful substances in the air of the working area. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/557235236 (accessed: March 1, 2019). (In Russ.).
- Kulikov V.P., Rogalis Yu.P. Coal quarry aerage. Moscow: Nedra, 1973. 224 p. (In Russ.).
- Rogalev V.A. Normalization of the mining enterprises atmosphere. Moscow: Nedra, 1993. 240 p. (In Russ.).
- Silaev V.V. Methodical guidelines for practical training on the aerology of quarries using computers. Moscow: MGI, 1987. 32 p. (In Russ.).
- Nikitin V.S., Bitkolov N.Z. Design of ventilation in quarries. Moscow: Nedra, 1980. 171 p. (In Russ.).
- Ushakov K.Z., Mikhaylov V.A. Aerology of quarries: studies. for higher education institutions. Moscow: Nedra, 1985. 272 p. (In Russ.).
- Konorev M.M., Nesterenko G.F., Pavlov A.I. Ventilation and dust and gas suppression in the atmosphere of quarries. Yekaterinburg: UrO RAN, 2010. 440 p. (In Russ.).
- Nazarenko N.V., Petin A.N., Furmanova T.N. Influence of the development of deposits, related to the extraction of common minerals, on the environment. Available at: http://www.science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=7401 (accessed: March 1, 2019). (In Russ.).
- Alosmanov M.S., Mammadov V.A., Khalilova H.Kh., Bayramov C.M. Development of an Effective Method for Preventing Dust Pollution in Stone Quarries Using Petroleum Refinery Wastes. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282867218_Development_of_an_Effective_Method_for_Preventing_Dust_Pollution_in_Stone_Quarries_Using_Petroleum_Refinery_Wastes (accessed: March 1, 2019). DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.610098
- Degan G.A., Lippiello D., Pinzari M. Occupational Hazard Prevention and Control in a Quarry Environment: Exposure to Airborne Dust. Available at: https://www.witpress.com/elibrary/wit-transactions-on-the-built-environment/151/33341 (accessed: March 1, 2019). DOI: 10.2495/SAFE150031
- Korshunov G., Kovshov S., Safina A. Dust Control Methods in Open-Pit Mining. Current State of Physical and Chemical Research. Ecology, Environment and Conservation. 2017. Vol. 23. Iss. 2. pp. 883–889.
- Halwenge J.A. Dust Pollution and its Health Risks Among Rock Quarry Workersin Kajiado County, Kenya. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ee32/fb69d83d6d678c07ebdccffc590e426a4646.pdf (accessed: March 1, 2019).
- Dragunskiy O.N. Investigation of inversion destruction in the quarries: extended abstract of dissertation ... Candidate of technical sciences. Moscow: MGI, 1978. 18 p. (In Russ.).
- VNTP 2-92. Temporary norms of technological design of coal and shale open cuts. Available at: https://standartgost.ru/g/%D0%92%D0%9D%D0%A2%D0%9F_2-92 (accessed: March 1, 2019). (In Russ.).
- Dragunskiy O.N. An integrated approach at the formulation of tasks related to quarries aerology. Ecology and safety of mineral deposits mining. Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten = Mining information and analytical bulletin. 2017. № 6 (spets. iss. 12). pp. 52–55. (In Russ.).
- Dragunskiy O.N. Some issues of ensuring an integrated approach when setting the tasks of quarries aerology. Safety and ecology of mining production. Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten = Mining information and analytical bulletin. 2018. № 6 (spets. iss. 32). pp. 74–79. (In Russ.).