E.E. Nevskaya, Research Associate, email@example.com Autonomous Noncommercial Organization «Industrial Risk Research Agency», Moscow, Russia
The problem of buildings and structures blast resistance shall be resolved starting from planning and design stages of hazardous production facility. When designing the structure, which is resistant to explosions, it is first required to determine the value of the blast load falling on it. Majority of approaches to calculation and identification of the excessive pressure profile of the blast wave are based on the empirical equations of Sadovsky, Friedlender, Kinney and Graham. According to the practice of calculations it was established that the methods based on TNT equivalent can be used as an express analysis of the facilities resistance provided that they are located in the middle and far zones. Widely distributed in the Russian Federation were the methods given in the Safety Guide «Methods for assessment of the consequences of accidental explosions of fuel and air mixtures», which allow to consider the aggregate state and energy characteristics of fuel and air mixture associating the consequences of the steam-and-gas cloud explosion with the specific potentially hazardous substance. In the methods that assess more precisely the consequences of accidental explosion the computational fluid dynamics approach is used to calculate the time intervals for the blast load at the certain points of structure. The instrument for assessment of the manifestation of buildings resistance in relation to explosion is the calculations of object structures for the main and special combination of loads. The calculation of structures for blast waves effect shall be carried out using methods of structural dynamics, in which there are three main directions: numerical methods of high accuracy, approximate dynamic methods and simplified methods of calculation. Main measured reaction criteria are the coefficient of ductility and the angle of turn bending due to the beams load. The calculated values of the deformation parameters must be compared with their limit values to make sure that none of these values is exceeded. An important task in building structure preservation is to prevent progressive collapse. Such a reduction can be achieved by following the basic recommendations on designing of blast resistant structures, which are presented in the article.
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