Crop production in space as a way to improve the environment of astronauts


Annotation:

A number of states announces about their plans for the deep space exploration, in particular, on creation of circumlunar inhabited satellites and surface luna bases. One of the most important conditions for the implementation of the long-term manned space expeditions is the creation of the new generation of life support systems, including space greenhouses. Space greenhouses can improve astronaut habitat by enriching the crew diet with fresh vegetables with well-balanced biochemical composition, rich in easily digestible vitamins, antioxidants and dietary fiber. Important factors are the emotional and psychological support at the interaction of crew members with plants and the regeneration of the air inside the habitable volume by the autotrophic organism absorption of carbon dioxide released by the human when breathing, and oxygen release during photosynthesis. The review is given in the article concerning the number of modern current and developing space greenhouses, including the Vitacycle-T, cylindrical space greenhouse developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The need is indicated for the development of sanitary and hygienic norms for spacecraft compartments, including greenhouses, with a flight duration of more than 1–2 years in addition to the requirements of GOST R 50804—95. In order to use space greenhouses in distant space expeditions, including the Moon and Mars, it is required to intensify ground-based studies of the deep space environmental factors influence on the plants, including increased radiation and hypomagnetic conditions.

References:
  1. Main provisions of the Fundamental principles of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of space activities for the period up to 2030 and the further perspective (approved by the President of the Russian Federation № Pr-906 of 04.19.2013). Available at: https://legalacts.ru/doc/osnovnye-polozhenija-osnov-gosudarstvennoi-politiki-rossiiskoi-federatsii/ (accessed: May 13, 2019). (In Russ.).
  2. GOST R 50804—95. Astronaut habitat in the manned spacecraft. General medical and technical requirements. Мoscow: Gosstandart, 1995. 118 p. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200027840 (accessed: May 13, 2019). (In Russ.).
  3. Romanov S.Yu., Zheleznyakov A.G., Telegin А.A., Guzenberg A.S., Andreichuk P.O., Protasov N.N., Berkovich Yu.A. Life support systems for crews of long-duration interplanetary missions. Izvestiya RAN. Energetika = Proceedings of RAS. Power Engineering. 2007. № 3. pp. 57–74. (In Russ.).
  4. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. Available at: https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2819%2930041-8 (accessed: May 13, 2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30041-8
  5. Agureev A.N., Kalandarov S. Alimentation with preserved foods in experiment SFINCS-99. Simulation of extended isolation: advances and problems. Moscow: Slovo, 2001. pp. 209–215.
  6. Mitrea D.R., Moshkenani H.M., Hoteiuc O.A., Bidian C., Toader A.M., Clichici S. Antioxidant protection against cosmic radiation-induced oxidative stress at commercial flight altitude. Journal of physiology and pharmacology. Available at: http://jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/08_18/pdf/10.26402/jpp.2018.4.03.pdf (accessed: May 6, 2019). DOI: 10.26402/jpp.2018.4.03
  7. Kayden H.J., Wisniewski T. About vitamin E activity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000. Vol. 72 (1). pp. 201–202.
  8. Low C. Everything About Vitamins. Crown Press, Inc. 1998.
  9. Myhre A.M., Carlsen M.N., Bøhn S.K., Wold H.L., Laake P., Blomhoff R. Water-miscible, emulsified, and solid forms of retinol supplements are more toxic than oil-based preparations. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003. Vol. 78. pp. 1152–1159. Available at: http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Water-miscible-emulsified-solid-forms/14668278.html (accessed: May 6, 2019).
  10. Levinskikh M.A., Sychev V.N., Gushchin V.I., Karetkin A.G., Signalova O.B., Derendyaeva T.A., Nefedova E.L., Poddubko S.V., Podolskiy I.G., Mikhaylov N.I. Greenhouse as a component of the life support system in the experiment with 105-day isolation: biological, technological and psychological aspects. Aviakosmicheskaya i ekologicheskaya meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine. 2010. Vol. 44. № 4. pp. 57–61. (In Russ.).
  11. Levinskikh M.A., Sychev V.N., Signalova O.B., Derendyaeva T.A., Podolsky I.G., Musgrave M.E., Bingham G.E. Growth and development of plants in a sequence of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-3). Aviakosmicheskaya i ekologicheskaya meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine. 2001. Vol. 35. № 3. pp. 43–48. (In Russ.).
  12. Gushchin V.I., Shved D.M., Levinskikh M.A., Vinokhodova A.G., Signalova O.B., Smoleevskiy A.E. Ecopsychological investigations in 520-day isolation. Aviakosmicheskaya i ekologicheskaya meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine. 2014. Vol. 48. № 3. pp. 25–29. (In Russ.).
  13. Berkovich Yu.A., Smolyanina S.O., Krivobok N.M., Erokhin A.N., Agureev A.N., Shanturin N.A. Vegetable production facility as a part of a closed life support system in a Russian Martian space flight scenario. Advances in Space Research. 2009. Vol. 44. Iss. 2. pp. 170–176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.03.002
  14. Salisbery F.B. Controlled environment life support systems (CELLS): A prerequisite for long term space studies. Fundamentals of space biology. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press, 1990. pp. 171–183.
  15. Berkovich Yu.A., Krivobok N.M., Smolyanina S.O., Erokhin A.N. Space greenhouses: present and future. Мoscow: Slovo, 2005. 368 p. (In Russ.).
  16. Shagimardanova E.I., Gusev O., Bingham G.E., Levinskikh M.A., Sychev V.N., Tiansu Z., Kihara M., Ito K., Sugimoto M. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Capacity in Barley Grown under Space Environment. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2010. Vol. 74 (7). pp. 1479–1482. DOI: 10.1271/bbb.100139
  17. Sychev V.N., Levinskikh M.A., Gostimsky S.A., Bingham G.E. Spaceflight effects on consecutive generations of peas grown on board the Russian segment of the International Space Station. Acta Astronautica. 2007. Vol. 60 (4). pp. 426–432. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.09.009
  18. Sychev V.N., Levinskikh M.A., Gurieva T.S., Podolskiy I.G. Biological life support systems for space crews: Some results and prospects. Human Physiology. 2011. Vol. 37 (7). pp. 784–789. DOI: 10.1134/S0362119711070292
  19. Levinskikh M.A., Sychev V.N., Derendyaeva T.A., Signalova O.B., Podolsky I.G., Padalka G.I., Avdeev S.V., Bingham G.E. Growth of wheat from seed-to seed in space flight. Aviakosmicheskaya i ekologicheskaya meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine. 2000. Vol. 34. № 4. pp. 44–49. (In Russ.).
  20. Musgrave M.E., Kuang A., Xiao Y., Stout S.C., Bingham G.E., Briarty L.G., Levenskikh M.A., Sychev V.N., Podolski I.G. Gravity independence of seed-to-seed cycling in Brassica rapa. Planta. 2000. Vol. 210. Iss. 3. pp. 400–406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00008148
  21. Berkovich Yu.A., Krivobok N.M., Sinyak Yu.E., Smolyanina S.O., Grigorev Yu.I., Romanov S.Yu., Guzenberg A.S. The problem of creating a salad greenhouse for the international space station and subsequent interplanetary flights. Aviakosmicheskaya i ekologicheskaya meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine. 2002. Vol. 36. № 5. pp. 8–12. (In Russ.).
  22. Massa G.D., Simpson M.S., Newsham G., Stutter G.W., Wheeler R. Plant Atrium System for Food Production in NASA’s Deep Space Habitat Tests. 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013). DOI: 10.2514/6.2013-3359
  23. Nakamura T., Monje O., Bugbee B. Solar food production and life support in space exploration. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) in AIAA SPACE 2013. Conference and Exposition. September 10, 2013. DOI: 10.2514/6.2013-5399
  24. Zeidler C., Vrakking V., Bamsey M., Poulet L., Zabel P., Schubert D., Paille C., Mazzoleni E., Domurath N. Greenhouse Module for Space System: A Lunar Greenhouse Design. Open Agriculture. 2017. № 2. pp. 116–132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2017-0011
  25. Liu H. Bioregenerative life support experiments in Chinese Lunar Palace 1: results and future plans. 66th International Astronautical Congress 2015. SPACE LIFE SCIENCES SYMPOSIUM. Available at: https://iafastro.directory/iac/paper/id/30373/abstract-pdf/IAC-15,A1,7,8,x30373.brief.pdf?2015-10-05.10:03:47 (accessed: May 6, 2019).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2019-6-22-29
Year: 2019
Issue num: June
Keywords : deep space life support system space greenhouse astronaut diet vitamins psycho-physiological support space radiation hypomagnetic environment
Authors:
  • Berkovich Yu.A.
    Berkovich Yu.A.
    Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Prof., Lead Researcher, berkovich@imbp.ru The Russian Federation State Research Center — Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Moscow, Russia
  • Smolyanina S.O.
    Smolyanina S.O.
    Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Senior Research Assistant The Russian Federation State Research Center — Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Moscow, Russia
  • Konovalova I.O.
    Konovalova I.O.
    Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Junior Researcher The Russian Federation State Research Center — Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Moscow, Russia
  • Krivobok A.S.
    Krivobok A.S.
    Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Researcher The Russian Federation State Research Center — Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Moscow, Russia