The main methods of assessing critical defects of industrial structures are considered and analyzed, among which special attention is paid to the method based on the verification of non-destructive testing techniques in operating conditions of industrial structures close to real ones, as well as the method of assessing defects by risk criteria. It is shown that the main disadvantage of the known methods is the lack of a link between the types and characteristics of real defects and non-destructive testing methods that are optimal by one criterion or another for the control of industrial structures. A comprehensive experimental technique for determining the parameters of minimum defects in a real industrial structure made of polymer composite materials is proposed, which combines the advantages of using traditional methods and means of non-destructive testing with a probable approach, which together allow to identify the entire range of critical defects that directly affect the resource and operational safety of industrial structures. As the defects of the composite structure used to study the developed technique, spatial defects in the form of delamination between layers of reinforcing filler were considered, as the most critical from the point of view of the resource of the structure and the safety of its operation. Based on the results of experimental studies, it is established that for a specific structure it is advisable to determine the minimum values of defects geometric parameters. This, in turn, allowed to manufacture an appropriate standard sample with similar artificial defects, adjust the flaw detector to its parameters, and conduct non-destructive testing. It is experimentally confirmed that this approach allows to increase the reliability of non-destructive testing of industrial structures by identifying the entire spectrum of defects characteristic of the case under consideration, which directly affect the reliability, resource, and safety of their operation.
2. Statistics of industrial injuries. Available at: https://www.centrattek.ru/info/statistika-proizvod-travmatizm-po-miru-rossija/ 43022 (accessed: August 30, 2021). (In Russ.).
3. Khomenko A.O. Industrial Safety. Electronic educational text resource. Yekaterinburg: Uralskiy federalnyy universitet, 2018. 284 p. (In Russ.).
4. Russian Railways complains that the bridges in its economy are in a royal state. Available at: https://www.vedomosti.ru/business/articles/2011/07/25/stoletnie_mosty (accessed: August 30, 2021). (In Russ.).
5. Pisarenko Zh.V., Ivanov L.A., Wang Q. Nanotechnology in Construction: State of the Art and Future Trends. Nanotechnologies in Construction. 2020. Vol. 12. Iss. 4. pp. 223–231. DOI: 10.15828/2075-8545-2020-12-4-223-231
6. Ivanov L.A., Xu L.D., Bokova E.S., Ishkov A.D., Muminova S.R. Inventions of scientists, engineers and specialists from different countries in the area of nanotechnologies. Part I. Nanotechnologies in Construction. 2021. Vol. 13. Iss. 1. pp. 23–31. DOI: 10.15828/2075-8545-2021-13-1-23-31
7. Vasilev V.V., Lure S.A., Salov V.A. Estimation of the Strength of Plates with Cracks Based on the Maximum Stress Criterion in a Scale-Dependent Generalized Theory of Elasticity. Fizicheskaya mezomekhanika = Physical Mesomechanics. 2018. Vol. 21. № 4. pp. 5–12. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/1683-805X-2018-14001
8. Vasilev V.V., Lure S.A. New Solution of the Plane Problem for an Equilibrium Crack. Izvestiya RAN. Mekhanika tverdogo tela = RAS Izvestiya. Mechanics of Solids. 2016. № 5. pp. 61–67. (In Russ.).
9. Makhutov N.A., Gadenin M.M., Ivanov V.I. Scientific and Methodological Base for Technical Diagnostics of Potentially Hazardous Production Facilities. Bezopasnost Truda v Promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2021. № 6. pp. 7–14. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2021-6-7-14
10. Kozelskaya S.O. Increasing the Safety of Operation of Industrial Technical Systems from the Composite Materials by Predicting Their Life on the Basis of New Methods of Non-Destructive Control and Deep Neural Networks. Bezopasnost Truda v Promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2021. № 4. pp. 7–12. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2021-4-7-12
11. Budadin O.N., Aniskovich V.A., Vagin V.P., Tashev V.P., Rykov A.N., Kozelskaya S.O., Kutyurin Yu.G. On the issue of the methodology for the development of non-destructive testing technologies based on the verification of their efficiency under quasi-real conditions of testing the reliability of the operation of composite materials and products. Voprosy oboronnoy tekhniki. Ser. 15. Kompozitnye nemetallicheskie materialy v mashinostroenii = Defense technology issues. Ser. 15. Composite non-metallic materials in mechanical engineering. 2021. № 2 (200). pp. 43–50. (In Russ.).
12. Lepikhin A.M., Makhutov N.A., Leshchenko V.V. Assessment of the hazard of pipeline defects by risk criteria. Zhivuchest i konstruktsionnoe materialovedenie (ZhivKoM – 2020): sb. tr. V Mezhdunar. nauch.-tekhn. konf. v distantsionnom formate (Survivability and Structural Material Science (SSMS – 2020): collection of works of the Fifth International Scientific and Technical Conference in the remote format). Мoscow: Institut mashinovedeniya im. A.A. Blagonravova RAN, 2020. pp. 150–153. (In Russ.).
13. Makhutov N.A., Lepikhin A.M., Leshchenko V.V. Scientific and Methodological Provision of Safety of Subsea Pipelines with Defects Using Risk Criteria. Zavodskaya laboratoriya. Diagnostika materialov = Industrial Laboratory. Diagnostics of Materials. 2021. Vol. 87. № 6. pp. 45–53. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.26896/1028-6861-2021-87-6-45-53
14. Makhutov N.A., Lepikhin A.M., Leshchenko V.V., Kazakov A.A., Eliseev D.V. Evaluation of Allowable Size of Interfield Underwater Pipeline Flaws by Risk Criteria. Gazovaya promyshlennost = Gas Industry. 2020. № 10 (807). pp. 86–93. (In Russ.).
15. Kozelskaya S.O. Method of non-destructive testing of structures made of composite materials. Patent RF № 2733582. Applied: March 20, 2020. Published: October 5, 2020. Bulletin № 28. (In Russ.).
16. Rykov A.N., Budadin O.N., Borisenko V.V., Bogachev A.S., Guskov A.V., Monakhova E.G. Industrial Automated Ultrasonic Non-Contact Flaw Detection Pipes for Pipelines from Polymer Composite. Kontrol. Diagnostika = Testing. Diagnostics. 2019. № 11. pp. 20–29. (In Russ.).