To the Issue of Accumulator Batteries Fire Safety


Annotation:

The current problem of ensuring explosion and fire safety of the accumulator batteries is considered in the article. At many facilities, including for industrial purpose, they are used as uninterruptible emergency power supply for fire protection systems, as well as the networks supplying power consumers of the first category on the reliability of power supply (and the special group included in it).

Analytical summary is presented that shows the advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used types of batteries in Russia from the point of view of their explosion and fire safety. According to the statistics, the lead-acid accumulator batteries are widely used most of all.

The requirements applied for explosion and fire safety of accumulator installations, as well as the methods for its assessment and ensuring, are reviewed in detail. Inconsistency of the requirements of the regulatory documents at various levels (standards, set of rules, departmental norms and rules) is noted, which makes it difficult to control the production of the accumulator batteries, their proper selection for use at the facilities and further operation.

Analytical methods for explosion and fire safety assessment in emergency short circuit conditions were studied when analyzing the explosion hazard parameters of hydrogen mixture with air in order to categorize the rooms with the installed batteries. The approaches are analyzed concerning the calculation of the ventilation systems for ensuring compliance of these premises with explosion and fire safety norms.

Practical significance of the work is in studying the results of many years of the accumulator batteries experimental studies for compliance with the requirements of GOST 12.2.007.12—88. Specific evidence-based recommendations were developed on increasing the explosion and fire safety of batteries in real operating conditions.

The proposal was made on creating the single normative document regulating fire safety requirements of battery installations and their test methods. This initiative is based on the vast experience of the authors in this area and the widespread practice of using the current regulatory framework.

References:
  1. Rules for designing electric installations. All the current sections of the sixth and seventh editions with amendments and additions as of February 1, 2016. Moscow: KnoRus, 2016. 488 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Timonin I. Comparison of different types of the accumulator batteries for use in the network powerblock. Elektroenergiya. Peredacha i raspredelenie = Electrical power. Transmission and distribution. 2014. № 2 (23). pp. 78–80. (In Russ.).
  3. GOST R MEK 60896-21—2013. Stationary lead-acid batteries. Part 21. Valve regulated types. Methods of test. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200108021 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  4. GOST R MEK 60896-22—2015. Stationary lead-acid batteries. Part 22. Valve regulated types. Requirements. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200129510 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  5. Divya K.C., Østergaard J. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems — An overview. Electric Power Systems Research. 2009. Vol. 79 (4). pp. 511–520. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2008.09.017
  6. Events with smoke, fire, extreme heat or explosion involving lithium batteries. Available at: https://www.faa.gov/hazmat/resources/lithium_batteries/media/Battery_ incident_chart.pdf (accessed: February 5, 2020).
  7. Dramatic CCTV footage shows e-cigarette battery exploding in man's pocket — prompting storage warning from fire services. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/12/22/dramatic-cctv-footage-shows-e-cigarette-battery-exploding-mans/ (accessed: February 5, 2020).
  8. Plotnikov V.G., Cheshko I.D., Kondratev S.A. Fire hazard of lithium-ion batteries and low-voltage power sources based on them. Available at: http://rassledovanie.fire-expert.spb.ru/sites/default/files/СБОРНИК%20№4 -53-58.pdf (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  9. Kong Lingxi, Li Chuan, Jiang Jiuchun, Pecht M.G. Li-Ion Battery Fire Hazards and Safety Strategies. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/11/9/2191/pdf (accessed: February 5, 2020). DOI: 10.3390/en11092191
  10. Firefighter Safety in Battery Energy Storage System Fires. Available at: https://www.nfpa.org/-/media/Files/News-and-Research/Resources/Research-Foundation/ Current-projects/ProjectSummaryESSFirefighterSafety.ashx (accessed: February 5, 2020).
  11. Smelkov G.I., Pekhotikov V.A. Chemical current source. Requirements for fire and explosion safety. Pozharnaya bezopasnost = Fire safety. 1999. № 2. pp. 48–56. (In Russ.).
  12. Pekhotikov V.A., Smelkov G.I., Ryabikov A.I., Gruzinova O.I. Accumulator fire safety of batteries. Aktualnye problemy pozharnoy bezopasnosti: materialy XXVII nauch.-prakt. konf (Current fire safety issues: Materials of the XXVII scientific-practical conference). In 3 parts. Pt. 1. Moscow: VNIIPO, 2015. pp. 321–329. (In Russ.).
  13. GOST 12.2.007.12—88. Occupational safety standards system. Chemical sources of electric energy. Safety requirements. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200000276 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  14. Atabekov V.B. Repair of industrial enterprises electrical equipment: Textbook. 5-e izd., ispr. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 1985. 175 p. (In Russ.).
  15. GOST 28779—90 (MEK 707—81). Solid electrical insulating materials. Test methods for determination of flammability when exposed to an igniting source. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200011992 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  16. GOST R MEK 896-1—95. Stationary lead-acid batteries. General requirements and methods of tests. Part 1. Vented types. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200026933 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  17. GOST R MEK 60896-2—99. Stationary lead-acid batteries. General requirements and methods of test. Part 2. Valve regulated types. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200026936 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  18. GOST R MEK 61056-1—2012. General purpose lead-acid batteries (valve-regulated types). Part 1. General requirements, functional characteristics. Methods of test. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200095388 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  19. SP 12.13130.2009. Determination of categories of rooms, buildings and external installations on explosion and fire hazard. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200071156 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
  20. SP 60.13330.2016. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Updated version of SNiP 41-01—2003. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/456054205 (accessed: February 5, 2020). (In Russ.).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2020-5-56-62
Year: 2020
Issue num: May
Keywords : взрывопожаробезопасность fire hazard электроустановка аккумуляторная батарея requirements and test methods
Authors: