Study and Development of the Components of Gas Generator Compositions Based on the Ammonium Nitrate to Improve Blasting Operations Safety


The article is devoted to the study and development of the components of gas generator compositions based on the ammonium nitrate to improve safety of blasting operations. This is primarily due to the low cost of ammonium nitrate, low sensitivity to mechanical and detonation effects and a significantly lower content of harmful compounds in the combustion products compared to the analogues. PA-4 aluminum powder was used as fuel, carbon black powder — as a gas-forming agent. The effect was studied concerning different amounts of aluminum powder on the combustion characteristics of a gas generator composition based on the ammonium nitrate.

Calculated and experimental data showed that it is unreasonable to introduce more than 5 % of aluminum into the composition. According to the results of the conducted study, a gas generator composition based on the ammonium nitrate was developed to increase blasting operations efficiency and safety. Laboratory and polygon studies confirmed the efficiency and safety of using gas generator compositions at the destruction of stone. Destruction of the stone occurred without scattering of individual fragments, formation, and propagation of an air shock wave. Thus, the urgent task is to ensure blasting operations safety using gas generator compositions, which will allow to eliminate the formation of harmful, toxic gases and the high explosive effect.

1. Tulepov M., Baiseitov D., Sassykova L., Kazakov Y., Gabdrashova S., Mansurov Z., Dalton A. Development and investigation of pyrotechnic gas generating burning compositions. Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy. 2018. Vol. 53. № 2. pp. 281–288. (In Russ.).
2. Tulepov M.I., Gabdrashova S.E., Rakhova N.M., Sassykova L.R., Baiseitov D.A., Elemesova Z., Korchagin M.A., Sendivelan S., Pustovalov I.O., Mansurov Z.A. Development of gas-generator chemical cartridges working in the mode of non-explosive destructive mixture. Rasāyan Journal of Chemistry. 2018. Vol. 11. № 1. pp. 287–293. DOI: 10.7324/RJC.2018.1112013
3. Lukashchuk A.V. Application of the chemical pressure generators for chipping monoliths of the wall stone. Dobycha, obrabotka i primenenie prirodnogo kamnja: sb. nauch. tr. (Extraction, processing, and application of the natural stone: collection of the scientific works). Magnitogorsk: MagGTU, 2007.pp. 99–102. (In Russ.).
4. Sakovich G.V., Ilyasov S.G., Kazantsev I.V., Ilyasov D.S., Averin A.A., Shatnyy M.V. Study and development of the components of gas-generating compositions based on the urea nitro derivatives. Polzunovskiy vestnik = Polzunovskiy bulletin. 2010. № 4-1. pp. 47–51. (In Russ.).
5. Greatrix D.R. Scale Effects on Quasi-Steady Solid Rocket Internal Ballistic Behaviour. Energies. 2010. Vol. 3. № 11. pp. 1790–1804. DOI: 10.3390/en3111790
6. Blanks R.F., Wittrig T.S., Peterson D.A. Bidirectional adiabatic synthesis gas generator. Chemical Engineering Science. 1990. Vol. 45. Iss. 8. pp. 2407–2413. DOI: 10.1016/0009-2509(90)80122-U
7. Kohga M., Handa S. Thermal Decomposition Behaviors and Burning Characteristics of Composite Propellants Prepared Using Combined Ammonium Perchlorate/Ammonium Nitrate Particles. Journal of Energetic Materials. 2018. Vol. 36. Iss. 1. pp. 93–110. DOI: 10.1080/07370652.2017.1316794
8. Juknelevicius D., Dufter A., Rusan M., Klapötke T.M., Ramanavicius A. Study of Pyrotechnic Blue Strobe Compositions Based on Ammonium Perchlorate and Tetramethylammonium Nitrate. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. 2017. № 7. pp. 1113–1119. DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201601486
9. Amir Zh.A., Bayseytov D.A., Gizatova S.E., Kudyarova Zh.B., Tulepov M.I. Tests of Samples of Emulsion Explosive Senatel Magnum before and after Introduction of the Marking Composition for Explosive Properties and Safety Criteria. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2021. № 6. pp. 75–81. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2021-6-75-81
10. Skydanenko M., Sklabinskyi V., Saleh S., Barghi S. Reduction of dust emission by monodisperse system technology for ammonium nitrate manufacturing. Processes. 2017. Vol. 5. № 3. pp. 37–49. DOI: 10.3390/pr5030037
11. Mosevitzky B., Grinberg D.A., Shter G.E., Grader G.S. Combustion simulations of aqueous urea ammonium nitrate monofuel at high pressures. Combustion and Flame. 2016. Vol. 166. pp. 295–306. DOI: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.01.030
12. Denisyuk A.P., E Zo Tve, Chernykh S.V. Investigation of the regularities governing the combustion of propellants with ammonium nitrate. Uspekhi v khimii i khimicheskoy tekhnologii = Advances in Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 2007. № 7. pp. 119–123. (In Russ.).
13. Ulyanova E.V., Denisyuk A.P., E Zo Tve, Rusin D.L. Ballistic gunpowder with ammonium nitrate. Uspekhi v khimii i khimicheskoy tekhnologii = Advances in Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 2011. № 12 (128). pp. 30–34. (In Russ.).
14. Sinditskiy V.P., Egorshev V.Yu., Berezin M.V., Serushkin V.V. Methods for studying the combustion of energetic materials. Laboratory workshop. Мoscow: RKhTU im. D.I. Mendeleeva, 2010. 103 p. (In Russ.).
15. Trusov B.G. Code System for Simulation of Phase and Chemical Equilibriums at Higher Temperatures. Inzhenernyy zhurnal: nauka i innovatsii = Engineering Journal: Science and Innovation. 2012. № 1 (1). (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18698/2308-6033-2012-1-31
16. Berezuev Yu.A., Golovin E.V., Kundyshev E.V. Intensification of the block stone production using borehole pressure gas generators. Available at: (accessed: August 1, 2021). (In Russ.).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2021-11-47-52
Year: 2021
Issue num: November
Keywords : safety blasting operations deflagration gas generator composition stone ammonium nitrate pyrotechnic cartridge
  • Bayseytov D.A.
    Bayseytov D.A.
    Cand. Sci. (Chem.), Senior Lecturer, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Tulepov M.I.
    Tulepov M.I.
    Cand. Sci. (Chem.), Assoc. Prof., Head of the Department Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Amir Zh.A.
    Amir Zh.A.
    Candidate Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Orazbayev A.Ye.
    Orazbayev A.Ye.
    Cand. Sci. (Chem.), Senior Lecturer Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Tursynbek S.
    Tursynbek S.
    Lecturer Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan