Ultrafine Spray of Gas-Water Compositions Investigation for Fire Extinguishing Systems


The analysis of information about domestic and foreign installations of the volumetric fire-extinguishing with gas-water compositions is carried out. Pneumoacoustic sprayers of original design were developed, which make it possible to obtain a gas-water composition containing fire-extinguishing gas and water droplets of the ultrafine spray (10–60 microns).

It is shown that gas-water compositions combine the advantages of fire-extinguishing gas and fine-sprayed water, since the volumetric method of gas fire-extinguishing and the cooling effect of water are preserved. The deposition (movement) of drops of the gas-water composition occurs together with the fire-extinguishing gas; therefore, the gas-water composition of the ultra-dispersed spray can be conventionally considered as a whole, i.e., new extinguishing agent.

It is noted that the most promising is the application of gas-water compositions in the extinguishing of solid smoldering materials. 

In this case, when designing domestic fire-extinguishing installations, the amount of gas can be reduced by 20% or more, and the elimination of smoldering can be achieved by cooling with water from the gas-water composition. At the same time, the fire-extinguishing environment suitable for breathing for at least 3 minutes is formed in the room.

The influence of gas in the gas-water composition on the dispersion of water droplets is studied. The sedimentation rate of water droplets in the gas-water composition was estimated. The droplet dispersion was measured by laser diffraction using the Malvern Spraytec system. It is shown that the substitution of nitrogen for argon or gas composition Argonite in the gas-water composition does not significantly affect the dispersion of droplets. Sedimentation of ultrafine spray water droplets in the volume of the room occurs within a few minutes. Nitrogen has the best characteristics for use in the gas-water compositions. 

Conducted studies make it possible to conclude that the installations based on domestic gas-water compositions allow for import substitution of the foreign analogues certified in Russia.

1. NFPA 770. Standard on Hybrid (Water and Inert Gas) Fire Extinguishing Systems. Available at: https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=770 (accessed: January 1, 2021).
2. Forssell E.W., Scheffey J.L., DiNenno P.J., Back G.G. False Deck Development Testing of Hybrid Nitrogen — Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems. Available at: https://www.nist.gov/system/files/documents/el/fire_research/R0401171.pdf (accessed: January 1, 2021).
3. Adiga K.C., Williams F.W. Ultra-Fine Water Mist as a Total Flooding Agent: a Feasibility Study. Available at: https://www.nist.gov/system/files/documents/el/fire_research/R0401167.pdf (accessed: January 1, 2021).
4. Liu H., Wang F. Research on N2-inhibitor-water mist fire prevention and extinguishing technology and equipment in coal mine goaf. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222003 (дата обращения: 01.01.2021).
5. Isaev E.S. HI-FOG — modern fine-sprayed water fire-extinguishing systems. Pozharnaya bezopasnost v stroitelstve = Fire safety in construction. 2007. № 10. pp. 36–37. (In Russ.).
6. Kopylov N.P., Chibisov A.L., Dushkin A.L., Kudryavtsev E.A. Study of the regularities of extinguishing model fires with fine-sprayed water. Pozharnaya bezopasnost = Fire Safety. 2008. № 4. pp. 45–58. (In Russ.).
7. Kopylov S.N., Kazakov A.V., Bukhtoyarov D.V., Smirnov N.V., Kulakov V.G., Gladilin A.V., Isaev N.S., Borisov Yu.Ya. New Total Flooding Extinguishing Systems with the Use of Superdispersed Spraying of Gas-and-Water Compounds. Pozharnaya bezopasnost = Fire Safety. 2014. № 1. pp. 30–35. (In Russ.).
8. SP 485.1311500.2020. Fire protection systems. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. Designing and regulations rules. Available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/573004280 (accessed: January 1, 2021). (In Russ.).
9. ISO 14520-1:2015. Gaseous fire-extinguishing systems— Physical properties and system design. — Part 1: General requirements. Available at: https://www.iso.org/ru/standard/55340.html (accessed: January 1, 2021).
10. SinorixTM H2O Gas-200. SinorixTM H2O Gas-300. Engineering Design and Installation in Accordance with EN 15004 (ISO 14520). Available at: https://docviewer.yandex.ru/view/1130000020798165/?*=nnwIqWQyVSQzipszyNbrXBrKIUd7InVybCI6InlhLW1haWw6Ly8xNzY0ODQ4MTAzOTc1ODM1MzUvMS4yIiwidGl0bGUiOiJBNlYxMDI3NzQyM19lbi5wZGYiLCJub2lmcmFtZSI6ZmFsc2UsInVpZCI6IjExMzAwMDAwMjA3OTgxNjUiLCJ0cyI6MTYyNzQ0OTY4ODI2MCwieXUiOiI2MDM3MjMzOTkxNjIyNTQ4MjY2In0%3D (accessed: January 1, 2021).
11. Borisov Yu.Ya. Method for extinguishing fires in the closed rooms, the system for its implementation. Patent RU 2130328 S1. Applied: August 3, 1998. Published: May 20, 1999. Bulletin № 4. (In Russ.).
12. Borisov Yu.Ya., Dubrovsky N.A. Apparatus comprising an atomizer and method for atomization. Patent US-7080793-B2. Applied: October 11, 2001. Published: July 25, 2006.
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2021-7-60-65
Year: 2021
Issue num: July
Keywords : experiment fire extinguishing system gas-water composition pneumoacoustic sprayer dispersion fine-sprayed water
  • Kazakov A.V.
    Kazakov A.V.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Department Head FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia, Balashikha, Russia
  • Smirnov N.V.
    Smirnov N.V.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Lead Researcher, netsend@yandex.ru FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia, Balashikha, Russia
  • Gladilin A.V.
    Gladilin A.V.
    Dr. Sci. (Eng.), General Director — Science Leader JSC «AKIN», Moscow, Russia