Express-Methods for Calculation of the Dispersion of Heavy Gas Emissions in the Atmosphere

Yu.V. Gamera, Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Lead Researcher, Yu.Yu. Petrova, Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Deputy Laboratory Head OOO «Gazprom VNIIGAZ», Moscow, Russia


Identification of the scope of possible pollution of the atmosphere by harmful substances emissions is an essential part of the procedure for quantitative risk assessment of accidents at hazardous production facilities. First of all, it is related to the release of combustible and toxic gases which density is greater than the air density, since the specific feature of heavy gases is the dispersion in the narrow layer near the earth surface, in which both the sources of ignition and potential recipients are located. The article presents the review of existing approaches to calculating the dispersion of heavy gas emissions in the atmosphere. Verified, experimental-based algorithm of data for identifying zones of hazardous concentrations of harmful heavy gases with instantaneous and prolonged emissions is proposed. Algebraic relations are presented for solving the problems: direct (calculation of the location of isolines of the given concentration) and inverse (identification of the concentration in the given point). When solving the reverse problem, the possibility of the finite duration of the release is taken considered. Relative simplicity of the algebraic computational algorithm makes it possible to use the proposed express-methods for solving the wide range of problems, primarily those associated with the preliminary risk assessment at dispersion in the atmosphere of emergency emissions from various hazardous production facilities with handling of heavy gases or liquids, which pairs are related to heavy gases.


1. RD 52.04.253—90. Methods for prediction of the scope of contamination by superpotent poisonous substances in case of accidents (destruction) at chemically hazardous objects and transport. Available at: (accessed: July 10, 2018). (In Russ.).
2. Birbraer A.N., Roleder A.Yu. Extreme effects on structures. Saint Petersburg: Izd-vo Politekhnicheskogo un-ta, 2009. 594 p. (In Russ.).
3. Metodiki otsenki posledstviy avariy na opasnykh proizvodstvennykh obektakh: sb. dok. (Methods for assessment of accident consequences at hazardous production facilities: Collection of Documents). 3-e izd., ispr. i dop. Ser. 27. Iss. 2. Moscow: ZAO NTTs PB, 2010. pp. 123–175. (In Russ.).
4. Gorskiy V.G., Motkin G.A., Petrunin V.A., Tereshchenko G.F., Shatalova A.A., Shvetsova-Shilovskaya T.N. Scientific and methodical aspects of emergency risk analysis. Moscow: Economics and Informatics, 2002. 260 p. (In Russ.).
5. OND—86. Methods for calculation of the concentrations in the atmospheric air of harmful substances contained in the plant emissions. Available at: (accessed: July 10, 2018). (In Russ.).
6. Techniques for assessing industrial hazards: a manual. WTP55. Available at: (accessed: July 12, 2018).
7. The HGSYSTEM version 3.0 technical reference manual. Hague: Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij BV, 1994.
8. Methods for calculation of physical effects. CPR 14E. Available at: (accessed: July 12, 2018).
9. Witlox H.W.M. Unified dispersion model (UDM version 6.0) consequence modelling documentation: theory manual. London: DNV, 2000.
10. Methods for modeling the dispersion of hazardous substances accidental releases: Safety guide. Ser. 27. Iss. 11. Moscow: ZAO NTTs PB, 2016. 130 p. (In Russ.).
11. Ivanov A.V., Mastryukov B.S. On the reliability of using the PHOENICS computational complex in the calculations of substances dispersion in the disturbed flow. Izvestiya vuzov. Chernaya metallurgiya = News of High Schools. Ferrous Metallurgy. 1999. № 11. pp. 64–68. (In Russ.).
12. Edigarov A.S., Suleymanov V.A. Mathematical simulation of emergency flow and dispersion of natural gas in case of gas pipeline rupture. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie = Mathematical Simulation. 1995. Vol. 7. № 4. pp. 37–52. (In Russ.).
13. Methods for assessment of accident consequences at the explosion and fire hazardous chemical plants: Safety Guide. Ser. 09. Iss. 43. Moscow: ZAO NTTs PB, 2016. 32 p. (In Russ.).
14. Britter R.E., McQuaid J. Workbook on the dispersion of dense gases. HSE Contract Research Report. 1988. № 17. 158 p.
15. Shatalov A.A., Lisanov M.V., Pecherkin A.S., Pchelnikov A.V., Sumskoy S.I. Methods for calculation of the dispersion of emergency emissions based on the heavy gas dispersion model. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2004. № 9. pp. 46–52. (In Russ.).

DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2018-9-45-52
Year: 2018
Issue num: September
Keywords : hazardous production facility dispersion risk assessment heavy gas atmosphere emission cloud drift
  • Gamera Yu.V.
    Gamera Yu.V.
    Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Lead Researcher, Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, Razvilka, Russia
  • Petrova Yu.Yu.
    Petrova Yu.Yu.
    Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Deputy Laboratory Head Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, Razvilka, Russia