A.A. Gurin, Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Prof., Head of the Department N.A. Taran, Junior Researcher GVUZ «Krivoi Rog National University», Krivoi Rog, Ukraine V.I. Lyashenko, Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Senior Research Assistant, Department Head GP «UkrNIPIIpromtekhnologii», Zheltuye Vody, Ukraine A.V. Shevchenko, Director PAO «YUGOK», Krivoi Rog, Ukraine
Main scientific and practical results of enhancing environmental safety in the zone of influence of operating and exhausted tailing dumps of crude ore processing wastes and reducing the danger to the environment on the basis of the development of technology of the accelerated biological recultivation are presented in the article. This technology includes preparation of soils for sowing, selection of the type of seeds and additives to them, monitoring for their growth. It is shown that at a wind speed of more than 4 m/s per day from one hectare of the dry surface, 2–5 tonnes of the fine dust with a particle size of less than 4 μm and with a content of 60–70 % SiO2 in it are blown away. Such dust extends tens of kilometers from the tailing dumps. It is determined that the concentration of such dust in the air exceeds the permissible norms by 5–8 times, and the inhalation of air results in the disease of people with pneumoconiosis and bronchitis. It is established that latices, bitumen emulsion, universin, raw sulphate soap, etc. are recommended for fixing the dusty surface of tailing dumps. These means are distinguished by high cost, low efficiency due to short service life (less than 15 days) and impossibility to return tailing dumps areas for household needs. It is proved that the most effective are the biological methods of immobilizing them, which are harmless, economical, do not pollute the atmosphere and allow you to quickly return the lands for economic use. The results of industrial approbation of the developed technology at tailing dumps of PAO «YUGOK» (Krivbass, Ukraine) are presented, where various plants were grown on the areas of dusty surfaces covered with black soil and clay. It is established that the mock cypress immobilizes the tails in the fastest and reliable way by forming the large biomass, and prepares the soil for further penetration of the wild plants, the seeds of which are in the black soil or brought by wind or animals.
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