Considered are the issues of landslide hazard on land and in the waters of the World Ocean in relation to the operation of oil and gas facilities, including oil and gas production fields and subsea trunk pipelines. Specific examples are given concerning the loss of oil and gas production platforms and the pipelines destruction during landslides of bottom sediments in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the hurricanes in 1969 and 2004.
It is established that the bottom of the continental slope of the Black and Azov Seas and adjacent land areas are subject to extensive landslide processes. As a result of the bottom slope angles calculations using the latest bathymetric data from GEBCO and the distribution of the underwater canyons with weakly consolidated sediments, the cartographic scheme of the risk of landslides in the Azov-Black Sea basin was drawn up. The high level of landslide threats at the bottom slope angles above 0.5° is substantiated for approximately 27.4 % of the Black Sea area. It is shown that in the Black Sea a number of fields and long sections of the underwater pipelines are located in the zones of increased risk of landslides.
It is substantiated that due to climate warming with global sea transgression, the level of landslide threat increases. The occurrence of landslides is facilitated by permanent gas release, which dilutes the bottom sediments. The new underwater landslide mechanism caused by gas-dynamic processes in the forms of massive gas blowouts with formation of large craters —pockmarks is formulated in the article. At the same time, the crater is a weakened zone in the array of weakly consolidated bottom sediments and gives rise to landslide processes inside and around the crater. In addition, a powerful gas outburst generates elastic vibrations (seismic waves), which also contribute to landslides.
It is suggested to develop the initiated studies of landslide hazards in other Russian seas — primarily the Arctic shelf, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Caspian Sea, where offshore oil and gas fields are already operating.
- Savarenskiy F.P. Engineering geology. Мoscow–Leningrad, 1937. 422 p. (In Russ.).
- GAR. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), 2015. 316 p. (In Russ.).
- Adushkin V.V. Triggering effects by landslides formation: materials of the All-Russian seminar-meeting in June 22–24, 2010. Мoscow: GEOS, 2010. pp. 33–41. (In Russ.).
- Dzyublo A.D., Alekseeva K.V., Perekrestov V.E., Xiang H. Natural and Technogenic Phenomena during Development of Oil and Gas Fields on the Shelf of the Arctic Seas. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2020. № 4. pp. 74–81. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2020-4-74-81
- Bogoyavlensky V.I. The Arctic and World Ocean: current state, prospects and problems of the hydrocarbon resources development. Мoscow: VEO, 2014. 175 p. (In Russ.).
- Bogoyavlensky V.I. Natural and technogenic threats in fossil fuels production in the Earth cryolithosphere. Gornaya promyshlennost = Russian Mining Industry. 2020. № 1. pp. 97–118. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.30686/1609-9192-2020-1-97-118
- Bogoyavlensky V.I., Nikonov R.A. Natural hazards in oil and gas resources development in the world ocean: catastrophic landslides in the Gulf of Mexico. Burenie i neft = Drilling and Oil. 2020. № 7–8. pp. 20–25. (In Russ.).
- Bogoyavlensky V., Bogoyavlensky I., Nikonov R., Kishankov A. Complex of Geophysical Studies of the Seyakha Catastrophic Gas Blowout Crater on the Yamal Peninsula, Russian Arctic. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3263/10/6/215/pdf (accessed: October 12, 2020). DOI: 10.3390/geosciences10060215
- Bystrova A.K. The problems of transport infrastructure and the ecology in the Caspian region (the extraction and the export transportation of the oil and gas resources). Мoscow: IMEMO RAN, 2009. 96 p. (In Russ.).
- Yesina L.A., Yevsyukov Yu.D., Khvorosch A.B. Mudslide processes on continental slope in the northeastern Black sea area (testing ground between Betta and Olginka settlements). Vestnik Yuzhnogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN = Bulletin of the Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2011. Vol. 7. № 3. pp. 61–68. (In Russ.).
- Matishov G.G. Seismic profiling and mapping of the Azov sea recent bottom sediments. Vestnik Yuzhnogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN = Bulletin of the Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2007. Vol. 3. № 3. pp. 32–40. (In Russ.).
- Glushko A.Ya., Razumov V.V. A danger of landslide processes manifestation on the south federal regions territory. Yug Rossii: ekologiya, razvitie = The South of Russia: ecology, development. 2009. Vol. 4. № 4. pp. 138–145. (In Russ.).
- Luzhetskiy A.N., Erysh I.F., Kodzhaspirov A.A., Naumenko P.N. Landslides of the Black Sea coast of Ukraine. Мoscow: Nedrа, 1977. 103 p. (In Russ.).
- Austin D., Carriker B., McGuire T., Pratt J., Priest T., Pulsipher A.G. History of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in Southern Louisiana: Interim Report. Papers on the Evolving Offshore Industry. Vol. I. New Orleans: MMS, 2004. 102 p.
- Bouroullec R., Weimer P., Serrano O. Petroleum geology of the Mississippi Canyon, Atwater Valley, western DeSoto Canyon, and western Lloyd Ridge protraction areas, northern deepwater Gulf of Mexico: Traps, reservoirs, and tectonostratigraphic evolution. AAPG Bulletin. 2017. Vol. 101. № 11. pp. 1073–1108. DOI: 10.1306/09011610093
- Elger J., Berndt C., Rüpke L., Krastel S., Gross F., Wolfram H., Geissler W.H. Submarine slope failures due to pipe structure formation. Nature Communications. 2018. Vol. 9. P. 715. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03176-1
- Haflidason H., Sejrup H.P., Nygard A., Mienert J., Bryn P., Lien R., Forsberg C.F., Berg K., Masson D. The Storegga Slide: Architecture, geometry and slide development. Marine Geology. 2004. Vol. 213. № 1–4. pp. 201–234.
- Hill J., Collins G.S., Avdis A., Kramer S.C., Piggot M.D. How does multiscale modelling and inclusion of realistic palaeobathymetry affect numerical simulation of the Storegga Slide tsunami? Ocean Modelling. 2014. Vol. 83. pp. 11–25.
- Hillman J.I.T., Klaucke I., Bialas J., Feldman H., Drexler T., Awwiller D., Atgin O., Cifci G., Badhani S. Gas migration pathways and slope failures in the Danube Fan, Black Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 2018. Vol. 92. pp. 1069–1084. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.03.025
- Horozal S., Bahk J.-J., Urgeles R., Kim G., Cukur D., Kim S., Lee G., Lee S., Ryu B. J., Kim J. Mapping gas hydrate and fluid flow indicators and modeling gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in the Ulleung Basin, East (Japan) Sea: Potential linkage between the occurrence of mass failures and gas hydrate dissociation. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 2017. Vol. 80. pp. 171–191. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.12.001
- Huhnerbach V., Masson D.G. Landslides in the North Atlantic and its adjacent seas: an analysis of their morphology, setting and behavior. Marine Geology. 2004. Vol. 213. pp. 343–362. DOI: 10.1016/j.margeo.2004.10.013
- Judd A., Hovland M. Seabed Fluid Flow. The Impact on Geology, Biology, and the Marine Environment. Cambridge, 2007. 475 р.
- Kim Y.-G., Lee S.-M., Jin Y.K., Baranov B., Obzhirov A., Salomatin A., Shoji H. The stability of gas hydrate ﬁeld in the northeastern continental slope of Sakhalin Island, Sea of Okhotsk, as inferred from analysis of heat ﬂow data and its implications for slope failures. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 2013. Vol. 45. pp. 198–207.
- Li A., Davies R.J., Yang J. Gas trapped below hydrate as a primer for submarine slope failures. Marine Geology. 2016. Vol. 380. pp. 264–271.
- Naudts L., Greinert J., Artemov Yu., Staelens P., Poort J., Van Rensbergen P., De Batist M. Geological and morphological setting of 2778 methane seeps in the Dnepr paleo-delta, northwestern Black Sea. Marine Geology. 2006. Vol. 227. Iss. 3–4. pp. 177–199. DOI: 10.1016/j.margeo.2005.10.005
- Popescu I., Panin N., Jipa D., Lericolais G., Ion G. Submarine canyons of the Black Sea basin with a focus on the Danube Canyon. CIESM Workshop Monographs № 47. Sorrento, 2015. pp. 103–121.
- Prior D.B., Hooper J.R. Sea floor engineering geomorphology: recent achievements and future directions. Geomorphology. 1999. Vol. 31. pp. 411–439. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00090-2
- Atlas of natural and technogenic hazards and risks of emergency situations. Russian Federation. Southern Federal District. Мoscow: IPTs «Dizayn. Informatsiya. Kartografiya», 2007. 384 p. (In Russ.).
- Conducting observations, collecting qualitative and quantitative indicators of the state of the subsurface resources of the coastal shelf zones of the Azov-Black Sea and Caspian basins: geological report of AO Yuzhmorgeologiya. Available at: http://www.geomonitoring.ru/download/pshz/azov2018.pdf (accessed: October 12, 2020). (In Russ.).