The Hygienic Monitoring of Working Area and Estimation of Exposure Chemical Loads in the Modern Aluminum Production


Annotation:

The Russian aluminum industry occupies a priority position among non-ferrous metallurgy industries. At the same time, the features of aluminum electrolysis technology using fluoride compounds and various salt additives in the melt contribute to the formation of unfavorable working conditions, characterized by the impact of a complex gas-aerosol mixture of toxicants and elevated levels of physical factors on workers. Despite the constant technical modernization of aluminum production, this industry still belongs to the category of increased danger to the health of workers according to hygienic criteria. The purpose of these studies was a comparative hygienic assessment of air pollution of the working area with toxicants and calculations of exposure chemical loads for workers in the production of aluminum, taking into account the technical modernization of production. It is shown that the main priority chemicals that pollute the air of the working area of the electrolysis shops of aluminum production are fluoride compounds (hydrofluoride, fluorides, fluorine-containing dust of complex chemical composition), and resin fumes. Long-term monitoring of the content of these toxicants in the air of the working area and calculations of exposure chemical loads using traditional technology with self-igniting anodes showed a stable excess of the hygienic standards of these substances in the air of the working area. It is established that the upgraded technology of aluminum electrolysis with the use of more powerful electrolysers and pre-baked anode technology, significantly reduced (1.5–9 times) the concentration of harmful substances in the air of working area, with the exception of hydrofluoride, the level of which did not depend on the technology used, still exceeding the hygienic standards on average by 1.7–3.0 times, while the AHN indicators remained above the calculated allowable by 1.8–2.9 times. To radically reduce the concentrations of harmful chemical compounds in the air of the working area, further technical improvement of production is required, which requires the joint efforts of engineers, technologists, specialists in occupational health and safety.

References:
  1. Roslyy O.F., Likhacheva E.I. Accupational healthcare in the electrolytic aluminum production. Ekaterinburg: Federalnoe byudzhetnoe uchrezhdenie nauki «Ekaterinburgskiy meditsinskiy nauchnyy tsentr profilaktiki i okhrany zdorovya rabochikh prompredpriyatiy» Federalnoy sluzhby po nadzoru v sfere zashchity prav potrebiteley i blagopoluchiya cheloveka (FBUN EMNTs POZRPP Rospotrebnadzora), 2011. 160 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Chebotarev A.G., Prokhorov V.A. The working conditions and occupational deceases of workers of aluminum production plants. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya = Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology. 2009. № 2. pp. 5–9. (In Russ.).
  3. Kalinina O.L., Lakhman O.L., Zobnin Yu.V. Assessment of working conditions for the main occupations in the modern aluminum production. Sibirskiy meditsinskiy zhurnal = The Siberian Medical Journal. 2012. № 6. pp. 122–126. (In Russ.).
  4. Roslyy O.F., Gurvich V.B., Plotko E.G., Kuzmin S.V., Fedoruk A.A., Roslaya N.A. Yarushin S.V., Kuzmin D.V. The urgent issues regarding hygiene in the Russian aluminum production. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya = Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology. 2012. № 11. pp. 8–12. (In Russ.).
  5. Bodienkova G.M., Timofeeva S.S., Meshchakova N.M., Boklazhenko E.V. Working conditions and occupational risk of health hazards of aluminum industry employees. Irkutsk: Izd-vo «Irkutskiy natsionalnyy issledovatelskiy tekhnicheskiy universitet», 2015. 143 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Zhang Y., Sun M., Hong J., Han X., He J., Shi W., Li X. Environmental footprint of aluminum production in China. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2016. Vol. 133. № 1. pp. 1242–1251. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro. 2016.04.137
  7. Shayakhmetov S.F., Lisetskaya L.G., Meshchakova N.M., Merinov A.V. The hygienic assessment of gas-dust factor in the Eastern Siberia aluminum plant. Gigiena i sanitariya = Hygiene and Sanitation, Russian Journal. 2016. № 95 (12). pp. 1155–1160. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2016-95-12-1155-1160
  8. Chebotarev A.G., Duryagin I.N. Improvement of working conditions is an important task to maintain good health of the aluminum plant employees. Metallurg = Metallurgist. 2017. № 10. pp. 9–12. (In Russ.).
  9. Merinov A.V., Shayakhmetov S.F., Lisetskaya L.G., Meshchakova N.M. The hygienic characteristics of gas-aerosol suspensions in the modern aluminum production. Sibirskoe meditsinskoe obozrenie = Siberian Medical Review. 2019. № 3. pp. 78–83. (In Russ.).
  10. Sokur O.V., Chebotarev A.G., Duryagin I.N. The current state of working conditions and occupational decease incidence for aluminum production employees. Metallurg = Metallurgist. 2020. № 2. pp. 8–12. (In Russ.).
  11. Izmerov N.F., Bukhtiyarov I.V., Prokopenko L.V., Kuzmina L.P., Sorkina N.S., Burmistrova T.B., Lagutina G.N. The modern aspects of good health keeping and improving for the aluminum production employees. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya = Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology. 2012. № 11. pp. 1–7. (In Russ.).
  12. Susheela A.K., Mondal N.K., Singh A. Exposure to Fluoride in Smelter Workers in a Primary Aluminum Industry in India. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2013. № 4. pp. 61–72.
  13. Syurin S.A. The state of health of aluminum industry employees in the European North of Russia. Gigiena i sanitariya = Hygiene and Sanitation, Russian Journal. 2015. № 1. pp. 68–72. (In Russ.).
  14. Shaaban L.H., Zayet H.H., Aboufaddan H.H., Elghazally S.A. Respiratory hazards: clinical and functional assessment in aluminum industry workers. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2016. № 65 (2). pp. 537–543. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejcdt.2016.01.004
  15. Panev N.I., Korotenko O.Yu., Filimonov S.N., Semenova E.A., Panev R.N. The occurrence of cardiovascular pathology among the aluminum industry employees. Gigiena i sanitariya = Hygiene and Sanitation, Russian Journal. 2019. № 98 (3). pp. 276–279. (In Russ.).
  16. Roslyy O.F., Plotko E.G., Fedoruk A.A., Slyshkina T.V. The priority factors of occupational risk at aluminum electrolysis. Zdorove naseleniya i sreda obitaniya = Public Health and Life Environment. 2013. № 9. pp. 19–21. (In Russ.).
  17. ITS 11—2016. The information and technical manual for the best technologies available. Aluminum production. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200136806 (accessed: May 10, 2020). (In Russ.).
  18. Tabereaux A.T., Peterson R.D. Aluminum Production. Treatise on Process Metallurgy. 2014. Vol. 3: Industrial Processes. pp. 839–917.
  19. Fedoruk A.A., Roslyy O.F., Slyshkina T.V., Plotko E.G., Lemyasev M.F. The urgent issues of occupational hygiene at operation of superpower electrolyzes in the aluminum production. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya = Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology. 2012. № 11. pp. 13–17. (In Russ.).
  20. Zhukov E.I., Korostovenko V.V., Shakhray S.G., Kondratev V.V. The sanitary and hygienic assessment of air in the working area of aluminum production building equipped with electrolyzes with preliminarily baked anodes. Ekologiya i promyshlennost Rossii = Ecology and Industry of Russia. 2012. № 5. pp. 9–11. (In Russ.).
  21. Fedoruk A.A., Roslyy O.F., Ustyantsev S.L., Slyshkina T.V., Zykova V.A., Konstantinov A.V., Tsepilov N.A. Occupational fluoric loads of electrolysis workers when using fluorinated alumina at aluminum electrolysis. Uralskiy meditsinskiy zhurnal = Ural Medical Journal. 2007. № S11. pp. 44–47. (In Russ.).
  22. Zakharenkov V.V., Oleshchenko A.M., Surzhikov D.V., Danilov I.P., Kislitsyna V.V., Korsakova T.G. Determination of probability of health damage to aluminum industry employees as a result of toxicants effect. Byulleten Vostochno-Sibirskogo nauchnogo tsentra Sibirskogo otdeleniya Rossiyskoy akademii meditsinskikh nauk = The bulletin of the East-Siberian scientific center of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013. № 3–2. pp. 75–78. (In Russ.).
  23. R 2.2.2006—05. The manual for hygienic assessment of working environment factors and working process. The criteria and classification of working conditions. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200040973 (accessed: May 10, 2020). (In Russ.).
  24. Meshchakova N.M., Dyakovich M.P., Shayakhmetov S.F. Estimation of occupational risk for chemical production employees considering the toxic exposure load: methodological recommendations. Irkutsk: RIO NTs RVKh SO RAMN, 2013. 19 p. (In Russ.).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2020-9-50-56
Year: 2020
Issue num: September
Keywords : aluminum production hygienic monitoring toxicants working area air exposure chemical loads
Authors:
  • Meshchakova N.M.
    Meshchakova N.M.
    Dr. Sci. (Med.), Assoc. Prof., Senior Research Assistant, nina.meschakova@yandex.ru East-Siberian Institute of Medical and Environmental Research, Angarsk, Russia
  • Shayakhmetov S.F.
    Shayakhmetov S.F.
    Dr. Sci. (Med.), Prof. East-Siberian Institute of Medical and Environmental Research, Angarsk, Russia
  • Merinov A.V.
    Merinov A.V.
    Junior Researcher East-Siberian Institute of Medical and Environmental Research, Angarsk, Russia
  • Lisetskaya L.G.
    Lisetskaya L.G.
    Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Research Associate East-Siberian Institute of Medical and Environmental Research, Angarsk, Russia