To the Problem of Environmental Chemistration in the Production of Metal Ores in Mountain Regions


Mountain objects emit runoffs of atmospheric and natural origin into surface-stream flows. Dump waters contain copper, iron, and sulfur in concentrations comparable to their content in ores. The most significant is the chemical pollution of dump waters with sulfates, nitrates and metals. Powerful pollutants include chemical ingredients used and water from the processing of brines that are released to the surface. The impact of mining is multiplied in the mountains. The rivers of the Central Caucasus are fed by both glacial and underground and groundwater, the composition of which is subject to seasonal fluctuations. With an increase in the area of the developed mountainous areas, an increase in the technogenic load occurs. The main collectors of technogenic pollution in the Central Caucasus are the Baksan and Ardon rivers, which collect wastewater from the mining enterprises. 

The tailings site is positioned as an environmentally hazardous facility. At the enterprises of the Sadon Lead-Zinc Plant, the mined ores were enriched at the factory in the village Mizur, and the tails were dumped in the river Ardon, which polluted it with metals all over.      The finely dispersed fraction of tailings in strong winds pollutes the soil of pastures, farmland, river water and negatively affects the health of miners.  In Vladikavkaz, there is a steady increase in the disease incidence caused by the anthropogenic impact of ore mining and processing products. It is determined that the incidence naturally depends on the distance between the objects and the metallurgical enterprises of the city: with an increase in the distance to industrial objects, the number of diseases per unit area decreases. 

Radical protection of the environment from the chemically contaminated waters is possible with the complete disposal of industrial waste after bringing them to sanitary requirements. As a method for utilizing enrichment tailings, leaching technology with mechanochemical treatment in disintegrators can be claimed. Imbalance of the system of prooxidants-antioxidants in the blood of residents is a consequence of metal-induced toxicity, which contributes to the development of severe pathological processes. Utilization of enrichment tailings will reduce the risk of population morbidity and the occurrence of negative technological phenomena associated with the actions of aggressive water flows.

  1. Golik V.I., Komashchenko V.I. Ferruginous quartzite processing waste as a source of additional metal recovery and backfilling. Gornyi Zhurnal = Mining journal. 2017. № 3. pp. 43–47. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2017.03.08
  2. Chen H.L. Brief Analysis of the Technical Points about the Tailings Pond Environmental Impact Assessment. Advanced Materials Research. 2014. Vol. 955–959. pp. 1685–1689.
  3. Golik V.I., Gabaraev O.Z., Maslennikov S.A., Khasheva Z.M., Shulgaty L.P. The provision of development conversion perspectives into underground one for Russian iron ore deposits development. Available at: (accessed: February 20, 2020). 
  4. Golik V.I., Dmytrak Yu.V., Komashchenko V.I., Razorenov Yu.I. Environmental Aspects of Storing Tails of Ore Dressing in a Mountain Region. Ekologiya i promyshlennost Rossii = Ecology and Industry of Russia. 2018. Vol. 22. № 6. pp. 35–39. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18412/1816-0395-2018-6-35-39
  5. Golik V.I., Burdzieva O.G. Complex Assessment of Tailing Dumps Effect on the Health of Mining Region Population. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2015. № 12. pp. 57–61. (In Russ.).
  6. Zaharov E.I., Antsiferov S.V., Sammal A.S., Nikulin I.B. Studying Natural Processes Mechanism is Basis for Sol Ving Environmental Problems by Mining and Mineral Processing. Izvestiya TulGU. Nauki o Zemle = News of the Tula state university. Sciences of Earth. 2016. Iss. 3. pp. 30–39. (In Russ.).
  7. Gurin A.A., Taran N.A., Lyashenko V.I., Shevchenko A.V. Enhancing Environmental Safety in the Zone of Influence of Tailing Dumps Waste of Crude Ore Processing. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2018. № 3. pp. 57–62. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2018-3-57-62
  8. Chechel L.P. Ecological and Hydrochemical Consequences of Mining Tungsten and Molybdenum Deposits of the Eastern Transbaikalia. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering. 2017. Vol. 328. № 6. pp. 52–63. (In Russ.).
  9. Komashenko V.I., Vasiliev P.V., Maslennikov S.A. Dependable Raw Materials Base for Underground Mining the KMA Deposits. Izvestiya TulGU. Nauki o Zemle = News of the Tula state university. Sciences of Earth. 2016. Iss. 2. pp. 101–114. (In Russ.).
  10. Dmitrak Yu.V., Kamnev E.N. AO «Leading Design and Survey and Research Institute of Industrial Technology» — a 65-year-long path. Gornyi Zhurnal = Mining journal. 2016. № 3. pp. 6–12. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2016.03.01
  11. Kaplunov D.R., Rylnikova M.V., Radchenko D.N. The problem of using renewable energy sources during the development of solid mineral deposits. Fiziko-tekhnicheskie problemy razrabotki poleznykh iskopaemykh = Physicotechnical problems of mining. 2015. № 1. pp. 88–96. (In Russ.).
  12. Komashchenko V.I. Environmental-economical expediency of utilizing mining-industrial wastes for their converting. Izvestiya TulGU. Nauki o Zemle = News of the Tula state university. Sciences of Earth. 2015. Iss. 4. pp. 23–30. (In Russ.).
  13. Lyashenko V.I., Stus V.P. Environment in the Area of Influence Uranium Production. Bezopasnost zhiznedeyatelnosti = Life Safety. 2015. № 3. pp. 37–44. (In Russ.).
  14. Rylnikova M.V., Radchenko D.N. Methodological aspects of the engineering of mineral raw flows control system in the full cycle of comprehensive of ore deposits development. Ratsionalnoe osvoenie nedr = Subsoil rational development. 2016. № 2–3. pp. 36–41. (In Russ.).
  15. Rachwa M., Magiera T., Wawer M. Coke industry and steel metallurgy as the source of soil contamination by technogenic magnetic particles, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chemosphere. 2015. № 138. P. 863–873.
  16. Schaaf W., Bens O., Fischer A., Gerke H.H., Gerwin W., Grünewald U., Holländer H.M., Kögel-Knabner I., Mutz M., Schloter M., Schulin R., Veste M., Winter S., Hüttl R.F. Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 2011. Vol. 174. № 2. pp. 229–239. DOI: 10.1002/jpln.201000158
  17. Dmitrak Yu.V., Gabaraev O.Z., Razorenov Yu.I., Stas G.V. To the problem of leaching metals from non-conditional raw materials. Vektor GeoNauk = Vector of Geosciences. 2019. Vol. 2. № 3. pp. 32–39. (In Russ.).
  18. Kachurin N.M., Stas G.V., Kalaeva S.Z., Korchagina T.V. Environmental evaluating efficiency of environmental protection and environmental measures by underground mining. Izvestiya TulGU. Nauki o Zemle = News of the Tula state university. Sciences of Earth. 2016. Iss. 3. pp. 63–81. (In Russ.).
  19. Lyashenko V.I., Dyatchin V.Z., Lisovoy I.A. Improvement of Safety of Mining Operations on the Basis of Effective Management of Mining Waste and Crude Ore Processing. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2017. № 11. pp. 16–22. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2017-11-16-22
  20. Xiao Li-Ping. Study on Pollution Laws of Coal Gangue Leaching Solution to Groundwater System. Fuxin: Liaoning Technical University, 2007. pp. 345–356.
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2020-8-53-59
Year: 2020
Issue num: August
Keywords : environment disease incidence miners metal ores mining objects effluents chemical pollution pollution collectors waste disposal disintegrator
  • Golik V.I.
    Golik V.I. Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Prof., Chief Research Associate GPI VSC RAS, Vladikavkaz, Russia Prof. North Caucasian State Technological University, Vladikavkaz, Russia
  • Urumova F.M.
    Urumova F.M.
    Dr. Sci. (Econ.), Prof. Pushkin Leningrad State University, Moscow, Russia
  • Maslennikov S.A.
    Maslennikov S.A.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Assoc. Prof., Head of the Department ISOiP (branch) DGTU, Shakhty, Russia
  • Nebylova Ya.G.
    Nebylova Ya.G.
    Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Assoc. Prof., Department Chairman Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russia