When conducting perforation-explosive operations in the wells, two types of detonators are used: electric and impact. They serve to initiate detonation in the detonation chain of the perfosystem. Detonators differ by the primary node: in case of electric detonators, the power point is used with a bridge, to which an electrical signal is supplied from the blasting box, and for impact detonator, the power of the hydraulic head impactor is used for excitation.
Starting point for conducting scientific and research work on replacing the initiating explosives with a blasting substance was the development of gas-dynamic electric detonator. Studies were conducted based on the ideas about the transition of combustion of solid explosives into detonation, which consists of several stages: convective combustion, high-speed combustion mode, stationary detonation mode. All these stages have their length and depend on many factors. The rate of convective burning strongly depends on the density of explosives, since the presence of pores forms the sufficient number of the so-called hot spots ensuring stable convective burning, which transfers into the stationary detonation mode. The body is made thick-walled, which ensures integrity of the sub adapter. In addition to increasing the stability of the transition of burning to detonation, the study was made concerning the effect of roughness on the occurrence of the shock waves. In our case, with a roughness of 160–250 µm, approximately three shock waves occur in the tube with a diameter of 5 mm, which results in stationary detonation. From now forward, the mass of igniter composition for the electric detonator, and the mass of the blasting substance under the striker of the impact detonator were selected. This allowed to make unification of the body for both detonators, since the selected pulses ensured stable detonation excitation.
The electric detonator is equipped with the power point, the resistance of the bridge corresponds to approximately 100 Ohm; at a safe current of 0.2 A the voltage corresponds to 20 V. The power point has a contact, to which the cable head is connected with the function of remote connection of the detonator without the participation of the operator-blaster.
A.R. Arismetov, Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Adviser firstname.lastname@example.org M.R. Khayrutdinov, Cand. Sci. (Eng.), General Director V.V. Triputen, Operations Manager OOO «Promperforator», Chapaevsk, Russia
1. Arismetov A.R., Derzhavets A.S., Puzyrev S.N., Myachin A.Ya., Myachin V.Ya., Golenev A.A., Sokur A.I. Gas dynamic electric detonator. Patent RF. № 2046276. Applied: December 18, 1991. Published: October 20, 1995. (In Russ.).
2. Orlenko L.P. Physics of Explosion. In 2 volumes. Vol. 1. Moscow: Fizmatliteratura, 2004. 832 p. (In Russ.).
3. Abramovich G.N. Shock waves. Prikladnaya gazovaya dinamika = Applied Gas Dynamics. 5-e izd. Moscow, 1991. (In Russ.).
4. Universal specialized detonators of TOR series. Available at: https://perforators.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/RIPS-17-11_Promperforator_RUS.pdf99 (accessed: August 29, 2018). (In Russ.).
5. Lure A.I. Electric blasting of charges. Moscow: Nedra, 1973. 269 p. (In Russ.).
6. Gurevich A.A., Yushchenko S.V. Analysis of the causes of incidents and accidents during perforating-explosive operations in the wells. NTV «Karotazhnik» = NTV «Karotazhnik». 2017. Iss. 4 (274). pp. 24–33. (In Russ.).
7. Preprints. Moscow: IPM im. M.V. Keldysha, 2011. № 27. (In Russ.).
8. Calculation of the pulse transformer. Available at: https://habr.com/post/358318/ (accessed: August 29, 2018). (In Russ.).
9. Ageev M.V., Klimova A.A., Popov V.K. On proofing of explosive cartridges of PVPD-N and PGN type from the earth currents. NTV «Karotazhnik» = NTV «Karotazhnik». 2013. Iss. 7 (229). pp. 47–56. (In Russ.).
10. API RP 67 Oilfield Explosive Safeti: Proposed Changes for the 4 th Edition Task Group 1 New/ updated potent 1. Detonator classifications. Available at: https://perforators.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/IPS-16-01.pdf (accessed: August 29, 2018).
11. «DynaEnergetics» Electric Detonator DYNA WELL 0026ED HNS 1.4S. Available at: http://www.dynaenergetics.com/uploads/files/58f56a6c94c96_C490_det_0026_fds_1_4s.pdf (accessed: August 29, 2018).
12. «DynaEnergetics» Percussion Initiator DYNA WELL HNS 1.4S. Available at: http://www.dynaenergetics.com/products/energetics-systems/initiating-systems/igniter-and-percussion-initiator (accessed: August 29, 2018).